Historic Glacier National Park Murals Restored

“Glaciers in the High Country” is on loan to the O’Shaughnessy Center in Whitefish, MT (Source: Hockaday Museum of Art).
Change is a constant theme in the dialogue surrounding Glacier National Park in Montana. Glaciers are retreating rapidly, reducing streamflow and threatening flora and fauna. Sometimes, however, change comes with renewal. One striking case is the recent restoration of a set of murals from the historic Glacier Lodge.

Railroad tycoon Louis Hill, president of the Great Northern Railway in the early 20th century, deeply appreciated the beauty of the high peaks of the Rocky Mountains in northwestern Montana and sensed the financial opportunities the area offered. He pushed for it to become a national park and hoped to bring visitors by train to the new attraction. In 1910, President William Howard Taft signed a bill creating Glacier National Park, and Hill finished construction on the lodge in 1912. To add grandeur to the main lobby, a multi-story space lined by 40-foot fir pillars, he commissioned 51 murals depicting the new park’s landscapes and glaciers.

When the lodge was remodeled in the 1950s, a few of the murals were left up, but most were thrown away. Local grocery store owners Robert and Leona Brown of East Glacier saved 15 of the murals, storing them in their garage, where they were discovered by their granddaughter Leanne Goldhahn in 2000, after the Browns had passed away. Leanne and her husband Alan donated the murals to the Hockaday Museum of Art in Kalispell, Montana. Donations to the museum supported the murals’ restoration, which the Missoulian reported cost between $3,000 and $5,000 per painting. Ethan McCauley, a Boy Scout from Polson, Montana, took the project on and raised $10,000 in under a year to help pay the restoration costs. The museum is still collecting funds to restore the remaining murals.

The murals offer visitors not only simple beauty, but an opportunity to connect with the Glacier landscape, across both space and time. This is especially true for the painted vistas that visitors can see today by driving or taking a short hike, according to Tracy Johnson, executive director of the Hockaday. “People will come to the museum after a weekend in the park and say, ‘I was at that lake, I saw that waterfall,’” she said in an interview with GlacierHub.

But just as apparent is how the landscape is different than when the vistas were painted. “By looking at the murals you can also see what’s changed—glaciers that have receded, a new lodge that was built. The murals are a documentation of that space. We can compare and see that the lake level dropped a bit, or rose,” Johnson said.

Connection to the natural and cultural history of these landscapes may be important to the park’s future, says Lisa McKeon, who works to document glaciers in Glacier National Park with The Repeat Photography Project. “Helping visitors make the connections across the landscape is where the stepping stone of understanding glacier loss leads to a greater understanding of the whole system. Having a deeper sense of the place, visitors become engaged on a level that has more meaning, and perhaps creates a lasting impression that translates in to some kind of action,” she told GlacierHub.

Three of the fully restored murals are on display at the Hockaday, two are on loan to the O’Shaughnessy Center in Whitefish, and another is being displayed at the courthouse in Polson. This generosity is appreciated by the communities playing host to the murals, and Johnson reported that visitors from these towns often thank the museum for sharing the murals with them.

“St. Mary Lodge” is installed at the Lake County Courthouse in Polson (Source: Daily Inter Lake/Twitter).
These murals— in effect, historical documents of a visual nature— have profoundly affected out-of-state visitors and Montana residents. “Our murals are probably one of our most popular spots on tour in the exhibits,” Johnson told GlacierHub. “I’ve never seen so much support for a conservation project. Ethan was just amazing. He knew how important these were to our community and wanted to preserve them.”

The preservation of wild lands through the National Park System creates an inherent nostalgia for the parks. In her article, “Longing for Wonderland: Nostalgia for Nature in Post-Frontier America,” Jennifer Ladino argued, “Often figured as the quintessential home— and frequently posited as the Eden from which humanity has tragically fallen— nature demands attention as a slippery object of nostalgic longing throughout American history.”

Viewed today, the murals’ depiction of famous landscapes are inevitably tinged with nostalgia.  “There’s a timeless connection between the 1920/30s and today, almost a hundred years ago. It takes people back,” Johnson said. The painting of Grinnell Glacier, the most visited glacier in the park, can act as a time machine, simultaneously inspiring viewers to imagine what the area looked like in the past and impressing upon them how much the glacier has retreated. “Art can capture so much. In the murals, people find connection. They can imagine the artist at the Grinnell Lake area thinking, ‘I wonder what’s on the other side of that mountain.’ Art takes you back to that spirit of adventure,” she said.

“Grinnell Lake Area in Many Glacier” depicts a popular spot in Glacier National Park (Source: Hockaday Museum of Art).
The murals have created another adventure, as people speculate on who painted the unsigned works of art. No records exist with the lodge or railway, and Joe Abbrescia, who restored the murals, hasn’t reached a conclusion through his research on their origin. “If you go to the lodge at East Glacier, I would swear that whatever artist painted those painted ours,” said Johnson. Some speculate it was the artist John Fery, or one of the female artists who painted in the 20s and 30s in Glacier Park under a male name. “We’ve done as much as we can. It’s kind of a neat mystery,” she said.

No matter their origin, Montana is lucky to have the murals. As Glacier’s iconic features melt rapidly, these works of art and the story of their restoration will serve as reminders of what the park once looked like and our evolving relationship with glacial landscapes.

Photo Friday: Spring Arrives at the Glaciers!

The delicate Glacier Lily (Erythronium grandiflorum), which blooms just after the snow melts, is our indication that spring is here! The species is now blooming in mountainous areas like the Rocky Mountains and will continue to bloom until mid-August. The flower grows best in rich, moist soil along stream banks and in meadows. Bears, deer, elk, and ground squirrels all eat different parts of the droopy flower, also known as the Avalanche Lily. Meriwether Lewis, famous for the early 19th century Lewis and Clark expedition, mentioned the species numerous times in his 1806 journal. Historians speculate that Lewis’ interest stemmed from the flower’s status as a harbinger of spring.

See images of the Glacier Lily below.

Glacier Lilies (Source: GlacierNPS/Creative Commons)
Glacier Lilies (Source: Glacier NPS/Creative Commons).


Marmots playing in a Glacier Lily meadow in Montana (Source: Glacier National Park/Creative Commons).
Marmots playing in a Glacier Lily meadow in Montana (Source: Glacier National Park/Creative Commons).


Close up of a Glacier Lily (Source: YellowstoneNPS).
Close-up of a Glacier Lily (Source: Yellowstone NPS/Creative Commons).


Nature at work (Source: United States Department of Agriculture)
Nature at work (Source: United States Department of Agriculture).


 Glacier Lily specimen that Meriwether Lewis collected on May 8, 1806, along Idaho’s Clearwater River (Source: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia).

Glacier Lily specimen that Meriwether Lewis collected on May 8, 1806, along Idaho’s Clearwater River (Source: Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia).



Glacier Loss Threatens Stoneflies in Glacier National Park

Glaciers in the Rocky Mountains are undergoing rapid retreat, threatening two remarkable insect species that live in streams fed by glacial meltwater. Lednia tumana (meltwater stonefly) and Zapada glacier (Western glacier stonefly) have recently been proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act due to the threat that climate change poses to their habitats.

A recent study by J. Joseph Giersch et al. published in Global Change Biology offers insight into the factors that influence the distribution of these species, providing valuable information for conservation efforts. In an interview with GlacierHub, Giersch, a scientist at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), said, “Findings from our research were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to inform the listing decision for the two species.”

The study took place in Glacier National Park, Montana, where regional warming has had serious effects. Surveys of glacial extent revealed that 80% of glacial mass within the park has been lost since the 19th century, with full recession predicted over the next two decades, according to Paul Carrara in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. This creates the need for a better understanding of glacier-dependent species such as the stoneflies and ecological implications of species loss.

A researcher collecting samples from a stream fed by meltwater from Blackfoot Glacier (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).
A researcher collecting samples from a stream fed by meltwater from Blackfoot Glacier (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).

The team of researchers led by Giersch sampled the alpine stream network within Glacier National Park between 1996 and 2015, tracking the abundance of nymph (the immature form and second stage of the life cycle) and adult Lednia tumana and Zapada glacier. Samples of Lednia tumana were found in a total of 113 streams within the park, while Zapada glacier was only detected in 10 streams, six within the park and four within other parts of the Rocky Mountains in Montana and Wyoming.

Both species of stonefly are endemic to the region around Glacier National Park and are range-restricted. Their distributions were found to be related to cold stream temperatures and proximity to glaciers or permanent snowfields, with survival “dependent on the unique thermal and hydrologic conditions found only in glacier-fed and snowmelt-driven alpine streams,” according to the study.

A Lednia tumana nymph, which lives underwater (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).
A Lednia tumana nymph, which lives underwater (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).

An interesting feature of both Lednia tumana and Zapada glacier is that they are aquatic in the egg and nymph stages of their life cycles, before becoming terrestrial adults. The adult females lay eggs in short sections of cold alpine streams found directly below glaciers and permanent snowfields within the park. The whole life cycle can last from one to two years.

When the stonefly’s eggs hatch, the nymphs swim or drift along the alpine streams, feeding and growing until they emerge as fully grown adults in July or August. The short-lived adults are weak fliers, so they tend to be found on streamside vegetation. Male and female adult Zapada glacier communicate and find each other by drumming (tapping specialized structures in their abdominal segments on the material at the bottom of the stream). After finding each other, they mate and the females lay eggs in the streams, re-starting the life cycle process. Mature Lednia tumana nymphs tend to be about a quarter of an inch-long, while adults are slightly smaller, according to the USFWS.

An adult Zapada glacier, which is terrestrial (Joe Giersch/USGS).
An adult Zapada glacier, which is terrestrial (Joe Giersch/USGS).

As alpine glaciers in Glacier National Park disappear as a result of climate change, meltwater contributions to alpine streams will decrease, changing the temperature and hydrological regimes that both stonefly species, particularly in the egg and nymph stages, depend on.

The loss of permanent cold water to their native habitat may eventually result in the extinction of these species. Additionally, a shorter-term effect could be a decrease in population connectivity due to cold water dependent species migrating upstream in response to warming temperatures,” Giersch explained to GlacierHub. “In an area with steep topography such as Glacier National Park, upstream migrating populations become ever more geographically and genetically isolated. This will ultimately cause a decrease in the persistence of the species.”

Glacier National Park has many streams fed by glacial meltwater (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).
Glacier National Park has many streams fed by glacial meltwater (Source: Joe Giersch/USGS).

According to Giersch, the implications of the loss of rare alpine insects like Lednia tumana and Zapada glacier are both abstract (the price of biodiversity) and concrete (glaciers are a source of water necessary for the survival of the species). As alpine streams in North America are not well studied, the effects of climate change on biodiversity and complex interactions within food webs in alpine streams are unknown. “However, the loss of the ice and snow masses feeding alpine streams will have far-reaching impacts, as many other species downstream rely on cold temperatures from melting ice and snow,” Giersch explained.

In a statement from the Center for Biological Diversity, endangered species director Noah Greenwald said, “Global warming is changing the face of the planet before our eyes, and, like these two insects, many species are seeing their habitats disappear.” With many biological and human communities dependent on the water that comes from glaciers, stoneflies serve as sentinels of climate change in mid-latitude regions, providing an indicator of changes that will also have serious effects downstream.

Tensions Flare Over Glacier Skywalk in Jasper National Park

First Nations in Canada have long gotten the short end of the stick in deals with federal agencies. Recently, inside Jasper National Park, things are tending toward more of the same, with indigenous people raising objections over a newly installed glass skywalk 918 feet above the Sunwapta valley.

Like Canada’s other early national parks, Jasper was formed through colonial territorialization, in which indigenous people were forced from their lands to make way for wilderness preservation. As a result, the government must still consult with indigenous communities that hold Aboriginal or treaty rights in the area, a process fraught with controversy, according to an article by Megan Youdelis, a researcher at York University. In Jasper National Park, interests of First Nations overlaps with that of Parks Canada, causing friction over the development of the Glacier Skywalk.

A couple taking a selfie on the Glacier Skywalk (Source: Cezary Kucharski/Flickr).

Jasper, located in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta province, is a few hours drive west of Edmonton, and is the second most visited park in Canada  with over two million visitors a year. Replete with glaciers and snow-capped mountain peaks, it is home to the Columbia Icefield, the largest ice field in the Canadian Rockies, as well as the Athabasca Glacier, the most-visited glacier in North America. First Nations are the descendants of people who immigrated to the area as far back as 9,000 years ago, after the big glaciers receded from the present-day park.

Parks Canada, founded in 1911, is in charge of all national parks in Canada, and approved the $21 million Glacier Skywalk, but many First Nations felt that they weren’t properly consulted, according to Youdelis. Youdelis found that park management traditionally marginalizes First Nations’ input in the decision-making process in parks across Canada, including in Jasper.

“It’s not right that certain First Nations enjoy fairly advanced comanagement arrangements with the state (such as in Gwaii Haanas, for example), while the First Nations living in Treaty areas are only ‘consulted’ in a very cursory manner,” said Youdelis in an interview with GlacierHub. “I think this is a major problem for the older, southern parks in Canada, like Jasper, where Indigenous territories continue to be appropriated so that corporations and the state benefit economically.”

The 2011 Consultation and Aboriginal Engagement Report gives an account of the stakeholder meetings and open houses in which First Nations were consulted about the skywalk, but the report does not give any indication of which tribes were consulted, what issues were raised and what was done to address these issues. Parks Canada did not respond to requests to comment.

According to a public forum put forth by Parks Canada, “Subsequent site visits with Elders from communities that expressed an interest in the project either confirmed that there were no concerns with the project or that no follow-up was required.” Some First Nations members refute this claim and have expressed that Parks Canada didn’t consult them properly by using only a forum meeting instead of a formal consultation with First Nations. Forum meetings are considered inadequate by some members of First Nations because not all Indigenous people can attend because of either the time or location. Furthermore, if Indigenous people don’t speak up during the meeting, their opinions simply aren’t heard.

Jasper National Park (Source: Bernard Spragg. NZ/ flickr)
Jasper National Park (Source: Bernard Spragg. NZ/ flickr)

One member from the Aseniwuche Winewak Nation told Megan Youdelis, “We just felt it was very inappropriate that the Forum be used for consultation.” Another member of the Stoney Nakoda Nation said, “They did a brief presentation on what they wanted to do with the Glacier Skywalk and they asked for some feedback. The first thing I remember one of the members saying was, ‘This meeting is not a consultation. It’s not regarded as a consultation.’ What Jasper likes to do is have one or two meetings and say it’s a consultation.”

Others interviewed by Youdelis felt that the decision to go ahead with the skywalk was already made by the time they were consulted, even if they had rights to lands that overlapped with Park boundaries. A member of Confederation of Treaty Six Nations said, “We went in there frustrated, and we left even more frustrated. It’s really sad when you know that all that’s happening is they’re going to ask us for the sake of asking. Just so they can give the appearance of ‘Yeah, we asked them.’”

However, not all feedback from Indigenous people was negative: respondents of the Alexis Sioux Nakota Nation and Sucker Creek First Nation had a better experience with regards to the Skywalk and received one on one meetings, even negotiating terms with Parks Canada. A member of the Alexis Sioux Nakota Nation told Youdelis, “I guess if we didn’t seek them out that’s probably what would have happened with us as well, them coming to the Forum and doing a presentation. That’s the point where you start going after things… If you’re proactive with consultation, you can pounce on that [opportunity] and get your own wheels rolling.”

Road to Jasper National Park (Source: Pascal / flickr).

Other concerns with the new Glacier Skywalk stem from the fact that no Indigenous people work there, according to Youdelis.  While Indigenous people may be told about employment and economic opportunities from new projects, they are rarely followed up on. Near Maligne Lake in Jasper, there have been discussions about First Nations selling their crafts, but many see this only as a way for Parks Canada to curry favor with First Nations tribes. This may lead to a system where First Nations are incentivized to accept deals put forth, while not having any say on the park’s authority to build projects on their land.

“The community has always questioned why there are not more opportunities for Aboriginal groups among the private sector in the park,” said a member of the Aseniwuche Winewak Nation to Youdelis. “I know there has been discussions along these lines of tourism opportunities, visitor centers and partnerships, but nothing has ever really come to fruition.”

Though Parks Canada has taken steps to redress injustices in Jasper, like hosting annual Aboriginal Days where First Nations perform songs and dances, sell crafts, and showcase their culture, severe inequities remain. Much work still needs to be done across Canada to bridge the gap between Indigenous communities and park management, so that all Indigenous people feel that they have been properly consulted in park decisions.

As Youdelis emphasized to GlacierHub, “The unquestioned authority of Parks Canada to make any and all land use decisions in these territories is entirely colonial, and I think this issue with ‘consultation’ across Canada needs to be addressed.”

Moving forward, one thing is certain, First Nations will not forget about the Glacier Skywalk.

Study shows glacial melting changes mountain lake ecology

In the Rocky Mountains, researchers have been studying a pair of lakes–Jasper and Albino. While they are similar in size, location, and depth, there is one important difference: Jasper Lake is fed by glacier meltwater while Albino Lake is fed by snow. A report published in May reveals that this small difference has had a dramatic impact on the biology and chemistry of the lake itself, indicating that water source plays a much larger role in the ecological health of mountain lakes than previously thought.

Hallett Peak, Rocky Mountain National Park (source: NPS)
Hallett Peak, Rocky Mountain National Park (source: NPS)

Mountain lakes are an important source of regional water in the western United States, and are known for their historically high levels of biodiversity. Recently, these lakes have seen rapid changes which sparked concern from the scientific community. Last month the California-based Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains (CIRMOUNT) addressed the need for research on mountain lakes by publishing a special feature of Mountain Views, their biannual report compiling recent research on western United States mountains, that focuses exclusively on mountain lakes. The ten featured research articles all point to the importance of alpine lake conservation and investigate the impacts of climate change and other anthropogenic influences on regional ecology and environmental health.

One article— “Effects of Glacier Meltwater on the Algal Sedimentary Record of an Alpine Lake in the Central U.S. Rocky Mountains”— studied glacier-fed and snow-fed lakes and found drastic differences in the chemical compositions and species ecology between the two. The researchers, Krista Slemmons of the University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, and Jasmine Saros of the University of Maine chose two alpine lakes in the Beartooth Mountains, Jasper and Albino, which are physically and geographically similar. However, Jasper Lake is fed by a glacier meltwater, while Albino Lake is only fed by snowmelt.

core samples (wiki)
core samples (wiki)

To determine differences in the lakes’ histories, sediment cores were taken from the bottom of the Jasper and Albino. Over time, organisms and nutrients accumulate on the lakebed and gradually build up as sediment in bodies of water. The layers of the core therefore tell a story about the history of the life within the lakes. By analyzing the sediment cores, the researchers were able to look back through time and see how the type of water feeding the lakes has led to differences in life history and biogeochemical cycling.

Within the Jasper core, researchers found high levels of plankton species that thrive in high nitrogen conditions, indicating that the lake has had higher nitrogen levels than Albino Lake over the past 3,000 years, with particularly high levels corresponding to periods of high glacial melting, most notably the 20th century.

fresh-water phytoplankton, used to determine historic water ecology and nutrient levels (wiki)
fresh-water phytoplankton, used to determine historic water ecology and nutrient levels (wiki)

Today, glacier-fed Jasper Lake has approximately 63 times more nitrogen than snow-fed Albino Lake. It is the high concentrations of nitrogen in the glacial meltwater that has led to the differences between the lakes. This trend will continue as glacier melting accelerates with climbing temperatures.

While nitrogen is an important nutrient, and often limited in alpine lakes, it is possible to have too much of a good thing. In Jasper Lake, the sediment cores also indicated that species richness, or the number of different types of species present in an ecosystem, was lower than in the nitrogen-limited Albino Lake. These findings suggest that a high influx of glacial meltwater into lakes may lead to eutrophication.

algal bloom from eutrophication (flickr)
algal bloom from eutrophication (flickr)

Eutrophication is a type of water pollution that occurs when high levels of nitrogen cause plant and algae to grow excessively. This phenomenon, known as an algal bloom, blocks sunlight from penetrating the water column, decreases the oxygen levels in the water, and can harm other species in the ecosystem. Eutrophication is most commonly seen as a result of nitrogen fertilizer runoff into bodies of water, but the nitrogen stored in glacier ice appears to have high enough concentrations to cause the same negative impacts.

While global water scarcity is enough cause for concern over glacier retreat, these findings suggest that glacier melt has wider reaching negative impacts on ecosystem function than previously recognized. Understanding the cascade of environmental impacts resulting from glacial melting will become increasingly important as temperature rise continues to break global records, and will play an important role in preserving the biodiversity of marine ecosystems.

An Icy Art Installation Clear As Crystal

“Thinning Ice”, an installation commissioned by Swarovski for its ninth year at Design Miami (December 3 – 7, 2014), links melting glaciers and climate change through a three-dimensional experience. Architect Jeanne Gang collaborated with James Balog, a National Geographic filmmaker/photographer, to create the installation, which includes a kind of glacier sculpture and a series of photographs, as well as video.

Swarovski Crystal's headquarters in Wattens, Austria. (Photo: HellasX/Wikimedia Commons)
Swarovski Crystal’s headquarters in Wattens, Austria. (Photo: HellasX/Wikimedia Commons)

The installation was inspired by Balog’s photographs of the shrinking Stubai Glacier in the Austrian Alps, where Swarovski is headquartered, over a three-year period. The Stubai photographs are part of Balog’s ongoing “Extreme Ice Survey,” an innovative, long-term photography project founded in 2007. The project consists of 28 cameras at 13 glaciers in Greenland, Iceland, the Nepalese Himalayas, Alaska and the Rocky Mountains of the United States, which have been recording the rapidly depleting glaciers every thirty minutes over the past several years.

In an effort to bring Balog’s photographs to life, Gang displayed a fluid-formed luminous block, which represents a melting glacier, in the center of the room. This structure, which resembles a kind of table, is pocked with asymmetric holes embedded with a diverse selection of Swarovski crystals, from unprocessed fragments and shards to finely finished pieces. The holes are meant to resemble cryoconite holes, tiny perforations found on glaciers that are created by wind-blown dust made of rock particles, soot and microbes.

The installation’s floor is set with curving illuminated cracks, also filled with small bits of Swarovski crystal, which resemble the crevasses one might find in a receding glacier. Gang finished the installation room with an 11.5-foot tall and a 70-foot long media wall, which presented a running slideshow of epic photographs and video footage of the world’s glaciers.

(Source: Super Architects/Facebook)
Details from the “Thinning Ice Installation” (Source: Super Architects/Facebook)


“‘Thinning Ice’ is a work which captures the haunting beauty of the Earth’s threatened glaciers in a powerful, almost elegiac way,” said Nadja Swarovski, a member of the Swarovski Executive Board, in a statement. The immersive nature of the work is meant to inspire visitors to contemplate the implications of and solutions to the melting of the world’s glaciers.

Swarovski chose to showcase glaciers in Florida to highlight its commitment to sustainability. For 14 years, the company has funded its Swarovski Waterschool Program, which educates children around the world in the principles of sustainable water management. Swarovski also sources materials from suppliers that comply with the United Nations Global Compact’s human rights and environmental standards.

GlacierHub has posted other stories recently about artists from the United States, Italy, and Peru whose work centers on glaciers.

Glacier stories you may have missed – 9/22/14

Tibetan glaciers have shrunk by 15 percent

“The study attributes the retreat of glaciers and thawing of frozen earth to global warming, suggesting a significant impact on the water security of the subcontinent. Rivers such as the Brahmaputra have their source on the Tibetan plateau, where it flows as the Yarlung Zangbo before turning at “the great bend” and entering India.”

Read the Hindu Times article here.

Nepalese mountain communities fear melting glaciers and flooding

“‘I lost my grandchild and daughter to a huge landslide,’ 80-year old Dorje Sherpa said in the remote Dingboche village, lying at an altitude of nearly 5,000m. Nearly 14 years ago, they were crushed by a huge landslide caused by flooding from a glacial lake in nearby Amadablam mountain.”

Read the IRIN Asia story here.

New book looks at vanishing glacier’s impact on America

“As world temperatures soar, public outcry has focused on the threat to polar ice sheets and sea ice. Yet there is another impact of global warming—one much closer to home—that spells trouble for Americans: the extinction of alpine glaciers in the Rocky Mountains. The epicenter of the crisis is Glacier National Park, Montana, whose peaks once held one-hundred-and-fifty glaciers. Only twenty-five survive. The park provides a window into the future of climate impacts for mountain ranges around the globe.”

Read an excerpt from Christopher White’s “The Melting World: A Journey Across America’s Melting Glaciers” here.