Roundup: Snow Sublimation, Indian Hydropower, and Predators

The Importance of Snow Sublimation on a Himalayan Glacier

From Frontiers in Earth Science: “Snow sublimation is a loss of water from the snowpack to the atmosphere. So far, snow sublimation has remained unquantified in the Himalaya, prohibiting a full understanding of the water balance and glacier mass balance. Hence, we measured surface latent heat fluxes with an eddy covariance system on Yala Glacier (5,350 m a.s.l) in the Nepalese Himalaya to quantify the role snow sublimation plays in the water and glacier mass budget. Observations reveal that cumulative sublimation is 32 mm for a 32-day period from October to November 2016, which is high compared to observations in other regions in the world.”

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Yala Glacier (left peak) in the Langtang Valley, Rasuwa, Nepal (Source: Scott Mattoon/Flickr).

 

Hydropower Production in India under Climate Change

From Nature: “Hydropower is a valuable renewable energy resource in India, which can help in climate change mitigation and meet the increasing energy demands. However, the crucial role of climate change on hydropower production in India remains unexplored. Here using the observations and model simulations, we show that seven large hydropower projects experienced a significant (p-value < 0.05) warming and a decline in precipitation and streamflow during the observed period of 1951–2007.”

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Bhakra Nangal Dam in August, 2008 (Source: Kawal Singh/Creative Commons).

 

Resolving the Predator First Paradox

From Molecular Ecology: “Primary succession on bare ground surrounded by intact ecosystems is, during its first stages, characterized by predator‐dominated arthropod communities. However, little is known on what prey sustains these predators at the start of succession and which factors drive the structure of these food webs. As prey availability can be extremely patchy and episodic in pioneer stages, trophic networks might be highly variable. Moreover, the importance of allochthonous versus autochthonous food sources for these pioneer predators is mostly unknown. To answer these questions the gut content of 1832 arthropod predators… were screened molecularly to track intraguild and extraguild trophic interactions among all major prey groups occurring in these systems. ”

Read more here.

A map of the stydy locations, with yellow lines marking glacial positions (Source: Sint et al.).