In this week’s Video of the Week, former GlacierHub writer Sam Inglis shares footage from a traverse of the Gangja La––a 5,130 meter pass in Nepal––filmed in September 2019. The vantage point is from the High Camp, which according to Inglis was a debris-laden area, treacherous to walk on because of unstable rocks and snow cover, which was deeper than expected, concealing potential hazards.
In January, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development published the most comprehensive analysis to date of how climate change will affect the glaciers of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region. The high mountain area, known as roof of the world, is melting faster than anticipated, the report warned. Due to the remote location of many of the Himalaya’s 56,000 glaciers, however, ice collapse events are infrequently capture on camera.
Inglis, who is now a Nepal-based glacial hazards specialist, was part of a team trekking south out of the Langtang Valley. His video is a sobering glimpse of the third pole melting into a land of unstable lakes. “From the High Camp we could look straight into the supraglacial hollow and see the ice cliffs on either side of a glacial lake,” Inglis told GlacierHub. “It is clear that the lake has been burrowing its way down through the ice mass for some time.”
According to Inglis, the ice cliffs are no longer shielded by an insulating layer of debris. Exposure to direct sun and elements during the day is causing a continual shedding of debris into the lake.
Overcrowding on the route to the summit of Mount Everest is creating hazardous conditions for climbers who encounter hours-long waits. In the spring, multiple climbers died, sparking a debate on whether timetables or other restrictions should be created to limit the number of climbers and increase safety.
GlacierHub’s Video of the Week shows what the overcrowding looks like and contains testimonials from climbers on what it is like to experience crowded summiting firsthand.
By June 2019, thousands of refugees from the glacier-rich region of Nepal could lose their homes in the United States once their Temporary Protection Status (TPS) expires. They were granted TPS following the devastating earthquake in 2015. The expiration of Nepali’s TPS status comes after the Trump administration announced plans in April to end TPS for refugees from Haiti, Honduras and El Salvador, sparking concern among these displaced populations. The end of the TPS has also been discussed in the Nepali press.
TPS is only granted to citizens of countries that are deemed impossible for safe return as a result of circumstances such as ongoing armed conflict, natural disasters or other extraordinary or temporary situations. Currently, ten countries are part of the TPS list, including: Haiti, El Salvador, Syria, Nepal, Honduras, Yemen, Somalia, Sudan, Nicaragua and South Sudan. As of 2017, around 320,000 people hold TPS, including 8,950 Nepalis. Despite holding TPS, an individual may still be detained by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) on the basis of his or her immigration status. The TPS is also merely a temporary benefit that does not lead to lawful permanent resident status or immigration status.
Many Nepalis were granted TPS after the devastating 7.8-magnitude earthquake killed almost 9,000 people on April 25, 2015, It was the worst earthquake in Nepal since 1934 and triggered an avalanche on the glacier-covered Mount Everest. Following the avalanche, 250 people were reported missing, with Fox News coining it the “deadliest day on the mountain in history.” After the event, 3.5 million Nepalis were left homeless with the region, which faced around $10 billion in damages. Living near the high Himalayas and Mount Everest, the Sherpa ethnic group was badly hit. They also form a portion of the TPS population in the United States.
For many of these Nepalis, TPS has granted them a new lease on life. One such recipient of the TPS is Gyaljen Nuru Sherpa, who was granted TPS status by President Obama after the earthquake. The owner of several Nepali Tibetan fusion restaurants located in Westchester Country, just north of New York City, he mentioned in an interview with News12 that with the help of his TPS he had “raised $25,000 to help rebuild the homes of 16 relatives and a temple in his hometown following the earthquake.”
GlacierHub spoke with Alex de Sherbinin, from the Center for International Earth Science Information Network, about his work on outmigration from mountain areas. He points out that the Nepalis are not an isolated case.
“After the Haitian earthquake in 2010, there were some Haitians who received temporary protected status in the United States, but they were a small minority. There have been other cases of transboundary movements (for example, the Caribbean islands after the multiple hurricanes in 2017), but I would say these are the exception rather than the rule,” de Sherbinin told Glacierhub.
He added that displaced populations often lack any concrete plan for the time they plan to stay abroad. In fact, the majority return home eventually.“This is highly context-specific. It depends on the disaster, and on the region,” de Sherbinin said. “I think the disaster displaced figure things out as best they can, and are informed by social media and reports from their home towns about the ability to return home.”
“I hope this time the President will also understand and study a little bit about the conditions of Nepal. We hope for the best, Mr President will grant [TPS] again,” Gyaljen Nuru Sherpa added in his interview with News12. “I am very much worried about my people here and in Nepal. They are hardworking people, good people, but all they want is just to work and support their families.”
Pasang Sherpa, an anthropologist from the Sherpa community in Nepal, agrees that Nepalis depend a lot on agriculture or rely on daily wages and would have a hard time taking care of themselves following a disaster like the earthquake in 2015.
“The end of TPS program can mean that many Nepalis would lose their ability to support their families,” she said. “The opportunities they have gained over the past three years to build their lives will be suspended. This would mean that the effects of the earthquake continues to be felt three years later.”
Both De Sherbinin and Sherpa told GlacierHub that they are in favor of a TPS extension “on humanitarian grounds.” But as de Sherbinin points out, if things are stabilized, then perhaps they could return.
Mayor de Blasio recently sent an appeal to President Trump suggesting an extension of the TPS for Nepalis by 18 months. He is not the only politician to make a request based on a study of the region and its current status of recovery. To date, Nepalis continue to face difficult circumstances back home and many of the TPS immigrants may hope to stay in the United States longer to help those back home who still need assistance.
From People Publications: “Glaciers are subject to sudden ice flow speed-up events in response to rapid increase of meltwater in the subglacial hydrological network after a prolonged warm period or the drainage of a supraglacial lake…. lasting a few hours, a period too short to be captured by satellite remote sensing. We used a cost-effective Vertical Take-Off and Landing and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to monitor bi-daily the movements of Bowdoin Glacier. Our results show four distinct short-lived speed-up events, which were in phase with fluctuations of air temperature and meltwater plumes at the glacier snout, showing that recorded accelerations were triggered by an increase of buoyant forces in response to a surplus of subglacial meltwater.”
From MDPI: “Glacial retreat causes the formation of glacier lakes with the potential of producing glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Imja Lake in Nepal is considered at risk for a GLOF. Communities in the path of a potential Imja GLOF are implementing adaptation projects. We develop and demonstrate a decision-making methodology. The methodology is applied to assess benefits in Dingboche of lowering Imja Lake by 3, 10 and 20 m. The results show that the baseline case (no lake lowering) has the lowest expected cost because of low valuation of agricultural land and homes in the literature.”
From Frontiers in Microbiology: “Glacial forelands are extremely sensitive to temperature changes and are therefore appropriate places to explore the development of microbial communities in response to climate-driven deglaciation. We investigated the bacterial communities that developed at the initial stage of deglaciation using space-for-time substitution in the foreland of an ice sheet in Larsemann Hills. Our results show that abundant bacterial communities were more sensitive to changing conditions in the early stages of deglaciation than rare community members.”
Learn more about the bacteria populations of East Antarctic glaciers here!