Roundup: Montana Glaciers, Coropuna, and Kelp Forests,

Climate Change “Dramatically” Shrinking Montana Glaciers

From The Washington Post: “A U.S. Geological Survey study documenting how climate change has “dramatically reduced” glaciers in Montana came under fire from high-level Interior Department officials last May, according to a batch of newly released records under the Freedom of Information Act, as they questioned federal scientists’ description of the decline. Doug Domenech, assistant secretary for insular areas at Interior, alerted colleagues in a May 10 email to the language the USGS had used to publicize a study documenting the shrinking of 39 glaciers in Montana since 1966. Domenech wrote to three other Interior officials, ‘This is a perfect example of them going beyond their wheelhouse.'”

Read more about the Montana glaciers here.

Trump official said scientists went ‘beyond their wheelhouse’ by writing climate change ‘dramatically’ shrank Montana glaciers (Source: Jankgo/Flickr).

Studying Glacier Loss at Coropuna in Peru

From Journal of Glaciology: “Accurate quantification of rates of glacier mass loss is critical for managing water resources and for assessing hazards at ice-clad volcanoes, especially in arid regions like southern Peru. In these regions, glacier and snow melt are crucial dry season water resources. In order to verify previously reported rates of ice area decline at Nevado Coropuna in Peru, which are anomalously rapid for tropical glaciers, we measured changes in ice cap area using 259 Landsat images acquired from 1980 to 2014. If glacier recession continues at its present rate, our results suggest that Coropuna Ice Cap will likely continue to contribute to water supply for agricultural and domestic uses until ∼2120, which is nearly 100 years longer than previously predicted.”

Learn more about Coropuna glacial loss here.

Nevado Coropuna, altitude 4710m, direction 60deg (Source: A. European).

Kelp Forests in an Arctic Fjord

From Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: “Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard).”

Read more about kelp in a high Arctic glacial fjord here.

Arctic fox investigating the kelp in Svalbard (Source: Natalie Tapson/Flickr).

Roundup: Kelp, Firn, and Plankton Studied in Svalbard

Each week, we highlight three stories from the forefront of glacier news.

Warming of Artic  Changes Kelp Forests’ Density and Depth

From Polar Biology:

Kelp Seaweed. Courtesy of Flickr User snickclunk.
Kelp Seaweed. Courtesy of Flickr User snickclunk.

“Arctic West Spitsbergen in Svalbard is currently experiencing gradual warming due to climate change showing decreased landfast sea-ice and increased sedimentation. In order to document possible changes in 2012–2014, we partially repeated a quantitative diving study from 1996 to 1998 in the kelp forest at Hansneset, Kongsfjorden, along a depth gradient between 0 and 15 m. The seaweed biomass increased between 1996/1998 and 2012/2013 with peak in kelp biomass shifted to shallower depth, from 5 to 2.5 m.”

Read more about this study here.


Firn, Newly-Settled Snow on Glaciers, Stores Water

Firn, courtesy of Flickr User Alpen Picasso.
Firn, courtesy of Flickr User Alpen Picasso.

From  Geophysical Research Letters:

“Ice-penetrating radar and GPS observations reveal a perennial firn aquifer (PFA) on a Svalbard ice field, similar to those recently discovered in southeastern Greenland. A bright, widespread radar reflector separates relatively dry and water-saturated firn…Our observations indicate that PFAs respond rapidly (subannually) to surface forcing, and are capable of providing significant input to the englacial hydrology system.”

Read more about this study on firn hydrology here.


Krill and Crustaceans Play Bigger Role in Warming Ecosystem

From Polar Biology:

Polar Cod, which relies on plankton, being dried in Norway. Courtesy of Flickr User Victor Velez.
Polar Cod, which relies on plankton, being dried in Norway. Courtesy of Flickr User Victor Velez.

“Euphausiid (krill) and amphipod dynamics were studied during 2006–2011 by use of plankton nets in Kongsfjorden (79°N) and adjacent waters, also including limited sampling in Isfjorden (78°N) and Rijpfjorden (80°N). The objectives of the study were to assess how variations in physical characteristics across fjord systems affect the distribution and abundance of euphausiids and amphipods and the potential for these macrozooplankton species to reproduce in these waters…Euphausiids and amphipods are major food of capelin (Mallotus villosus) and polar cod (Boreogadus saida), respectively, in this region, and changes in prey abundance will likely have an impact on the feeding dynamics of these important fish species”

Learn more about these ecosystems here.