Roundup: Glacier Activities: Basketball, Sleep and Clean-up

This Week’s Roundup: Glacier Basketball Games, Summer Living and Clean-Ups

Tony Parker Plays a Basketball Game Teams Up for a Game on top of a Glacier

From The Score: “Tony Parker is taking basketball to new heights – literally. The San Antonio Spurs point guard teamed up with Swiss watchmaker Tissot to host a basketball game atop the Aletsch glacier, located 11,000 feet above sea level on Jungfraujoch mountain in Switzerland.”

Read about the game and see more photos here:

(Photo Source Twitter/@AirlessJordan).
(Photo Source Twitter/@AirlessJordan).

An English Doctoral Student Takes His Study of Glaciers to an Extreme Level

From The Alaska Dispatch News: “This summer, Sam Herreid has slept for 12 nights on these rocks that ride slowly downhill on a mass of ice. For a few days at a time during the last six summers, the 28-year-old has lived on this ephemeral landscape in the eastern Alaska Range. From his regal perch, he is learning how rock cover affects glacier melt…

“The Fairbanks kid who started this project at UAF before heading to England keeps expenses low by ferrying equipment in and out with his mountain bike. For most of his meals, he does not fire up his Jetboil stove. A typical dinner is a few slices of bread, a chunk broken from a block of cheese and a dessert of Digestive biscuits he carried from England. His water source is a stream in exposed glacier ice that slows to a trickle every night.”

(Photo courtesy Sam Herreid).
(Photo courtesy Sam Herreid).

Learn more about Herreid’s research by clicking here:

Central Asia Travel Organizes a Clean-Up Session on Lenin Peak, Kyrgyzstan

From MountainProtection.TheUIAA.org: “Organised each year since 2014, the project rewards volunteers who remove the litter. The goal for each participant is to collect as much litter as possible, give it to the Organizers at the acceptance point (Central Asia Travel Camp 1) and score points. One point equals one kilogram of litter. Every participant himself collects and carries litter to the acceptance point.

In the course of the 2014 climbing season, 38 voluntary mountaineers and ordinary travellers had come from Russia, Iran, Brazil, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, participated in the event. In 2015, Central Asia Travel decided to continue its ecological campaign, and about 100 kg of litter were carried down for disposal. Unfortunately there are still heaps of litter scattered all over the snow-white slopes is a truly disgusting sight! Kilograms of plastic bags and other waste to be preserved by the glacier for the following generations… This action is a right, necessary and timely deed.”

Read more about the initiative here: 

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Bacteria From the Sahara Desert Found on Swiss Glaciers

Bacteria living among dust particles from the Sahara have been found trapped in ice and snow on the Swiss Alps at an altitude of over 11,000 feet, according to a December article in Frontiers in Microbiology. The samplings collected from the Jungfraujoch region of Switzerland contained bacteria originally from northwest Africa, meaning these bacteria survived a remarkable wind-blown journey of over 1000 miles. These bacteria are particularly adapted to cope with UV radiation and dehydration stress, say authors Marco Meola, Anna Lazzaro, and Josef Zeyer.

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Example of dust plume from North Africa over the Mediterranean Sea (Photo: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC)

In February 2014 there was a strong Saharan dust event. According to the NASA Earth Observatory, dust events occur when powerful African winds uplift sand and dust into the atmosphere. Reaching high altitudes, clouds of dust are then transported across the globe through high altitude wind patterns. Initial uplift events are difficult to predict. In the past researchers collected dust samples via air capture, snatching the particulates, also called bioaerosols, straight out of the air before they landed. But it is difficult to grab enough dust using this method to have a sample size large enough for microbiological analyses, and the act of gathering particulates from the air often damages the samples that are captured. By collecting samples from snowpack in the European Alps, the researchers were able to obtain a pure sample without damaging the integrity and the potential viability of the particulates.

Bioaerosols are airborne particles that contain biological matter, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This includes fungi, bacteria, and even viruses. Charles Darwin first discovered bioaerosols on his famous journey across the Atlantic with the crew of the Beagle. He describes them in his 1846 An account of the fine dust which often falls on vessels in the Atlantic Ocean as “67 different organic forms in fine dust particles.”

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Section of one vertical snow profile sampled at Jungfraujoch.(Courtesy of :Meola M, Lazzaro A and Zeyer J )

Saharan dust events that travel toward Europe are rare. Because these events are monitored in real-time at the Jungfraujoch meteorological station, researchers are able to connect samples to specific dust events. For their research, Meola, Lazzaro, and Zeyer used samples taken from a depth of 220 cm from an excavated vertical trench in June 2014.

The particulates collected and attributed to the February 2014 Saharan dust event were tracked back to Algeria. Surrounding countries like Niger, Mali, and Morocco may have also contributed dust particles. Until they landed on the snow in Jungfraujoch, the bioaerosols stayed high in the upper atmosphere, where they were free from any risk of contamination. Three days after landing, the Sahara Dust particles were covered with fresh snow, preserving them by keeping them cold, insulated, and safe from UV radiation.

Meola, Lazzaro, and Zeyer were surprised that one phylum of bacteria, Proteobacteria, was the most common in both the clean-snow control sample and in the Sahara dust sample. What they did discover in the Sahara dust snow samples was an abundance of pigment-producing bacteria from Africa, absent from the clean-snow samples, including the pigment-producing Gemmatimonadetes. These are bacteria that have adapted to cope with high amounts UV radiation, very low temperatures, stress from dehydration, and nutrient deficient conditions. These unique adaptations allow them to survive the long journey from Africa to Europe.

It is remarkable that these tiny organisms, adapted to the desert conditions in the Sahara, can survive high in the atmosphere and as well as under the snow.

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