Wolf spiders in West Greenland are indicators of metal pollution in mine sites
From Ecological Indicators: “In the Arctic, spiders are the most abundant group of terrestrial predators, with documented abilities to accumulate metals. In Greenland however, most contamination studies in relation to mining have targeted the marine environment, with less attention given to the terrestrial.”
“The contamination status of a terrestrial area can be estimated based on soil sampling and measurements. However, such measurements may be biased due to difficulties in collecting representative soil samples (i.e. caused by high within-site variation of soil contaminants or a lack of information on potential bioavailability of the contaminants investigated). It has therefore been hypothesized that ground dwelling wolf spiders, based on their frequent hunting activities and their active movement over their hunting habitat, would display contamination levels more representative of that area than a specific soil sample.”
Greenland’s melting ice sheet releases vast quantities of sand
From Henry Fountain and Ben C. Solomon of the New York Times: “The world makes a lot of concrete, more than 10 billion tons a year, and is poised to make much more for a population that is forecast to grow by more than 25 percent by 2050. That makes sand, which is about 40 percent of concrete by weight, one of the most-used commodities in the world, and one that is becoming harder to come by in some regions.”
“But because of the erosive power of ice, there is a lot of sand in Greenland. And with climate change accelerating the melting of Greenland’s mile-thick ice sheet — a recent study found that melting has increased sixfold since the 1980s — there is going to be a lot more.”
Cryoconite on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau enhances melting
From Journal of Glaciology: “Cryoconite is a dark-coloured granular sediment found in supraglacial environments, and it represents an aggregate of mineral particles, black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM) formed by microbial communities.”
“Compared with snow and ice surfaces, cryoconite typically exhibits stronger light absorption, and its broadband albedo is <0.1 due to its effective absorption of visible and near-IR wavelengths. Thus, cryoconite can effectively influence the mass balance of glacier surfaces.”
From Earth-Science Reviews: “This paper comprehensively reviews the current status and recent changes of the cryosphere (e.g., glacier, snow cover, and frozen ground) in the TP from the perspectives of observations and simulations. Because of enhanced climate warming in the TP, a large portion of glaciers have experienced significant retreat since the 1960s, with obvious regional differences. The retreat is the smallest in the TP interior, and gradually increases towards the edges.”
From Nature: “Here we find that subglacially produced methane is rapidly driven to the ice margin by the efficient drainage system of a subglacial catchment of the Greenland ice sheet…We show that subglacial hydrology is crucial for controlling methane fluxes from the ice sheet…Overall, our results indicate that ice sheets overlie extensive, biologically active methanogenic wetlands and that high rates of methane export to the atmosphere can occur via efficient subglacial drainage pathways. Our findings suggest that such environments have been previously underappreciated and should be considered in Earth’s methane budget.”
From Landslides: “On April 20, 2017, a flood from the Barun River, Makalu-Barun National Park, eastern Nepal formed a 2–3-km-long lake at its confluence with the Arun River as a result of blockage by debris. Although the lake drained spontaneously the next day, it caused nationwide concern and triggered emergency responses…This study highlights the importance of conducting integrated field studies of recent catastrophic events as soon as possible after they occur, in order to best understand the complexity of their triggering mechanisms, resultant impacts, and risk reduction management options.”
From Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: “Muztagh Ata is located to the east of Pamir and in the north of the Tibetan Plateau. The ice core data provide important information for atmospheric circulation and climate change in Asia. Moreover, the climate in Muztagh Ata is very sensitive to solar warming mechanisms because it has a large snow cover in the region, resulting in important impacts on the hydrological cycle of the continent by enhancing glacier melt.”
Read more about black carbon in northern Tibet here.
Microscopic Crustaceans at Risk in Patagonian Fjords
From Progress in Oceanography: “Glacial retreat at high latitudes has increased significantly in recent decades associated with global warming. Along Chile’s Patagonian fjords, this has promoted increases in freshwater discharge, vertical stratification, and the input of organic and inorganic particles to fjords.”
Read more about the effects of glacial retreat on Patagonian crustaceans here.
Melting Greenland Ice Sheet Contributes to Sea Level Rise
From The Cryosphere: “Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated since the early 2000s, compared to the 1970s and 1980s, and could contribute 0.45–0.82m of sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. Recent mass loss has been attributed to both a negative surface mass balance and increased ice discharge from marine-terminating glaciers.”
From Cryosphere Journal: “Iceberg discharge from the Greenland Ice Sheet accounts for up to half of the freshwater flux to surrounding fjords and ocean basins, yet the spatial distribution of iceberg meltwater fluxes is poorly understood. One of the primary limitations for mapping iceberg meltwater fluxes, and changes over time, is the dearth of iceberg submarine melt rate estimates. Using a remote sensing approach to estimate submarine melt rates during 2011–2016, we find that spatial variations in iceberg melt rates decrease with latitude and increase with iceberg draft. Overall, the results suggest that remotely sensed iceberg melt rates can be used to characterize spatial and temporal variations in oceanic forcing near often inaccessible marine-terminating glaciers.”
Discover more about the use of remote sensing for studying glacier melt rates here.
The History of Civilizations in the Arctic
From “Arctic Modernities: The Environmental, the Exotic and the Everyday“: “Less tangible than melting polar glaciers or the changing social conditions in northern societies, the modern Arctic represented in writings, visual images and films has to a large extent been neglected in scholarship and policy-making. However, the modern Arctic is a not only a natural environment dramatically impacted by human activities. It is also an incongruous amalgamation of exoticized indigenous tradition and a mundane every day. The chapters in this volume examine the modern Arctic from all these perspectives. They demonstrate to what extent the processes of modernization have changed the discursive signification of the Arctic. They also investigate the extent to which the traditions of heroic Arctic images – whether these traditions are affirmed, contested or repudiated – have continued to shape, influence and inform modern discourses.”
From Volcano Café: “What makes a volcano dangerous? Clearly, the severity of any eruption plays a role. So does the presence of people nearby. But it is not always the best-known volcanoes that are the most dangerous. Tseax is hardly world-renowned, but it caused a major volcanic disaster in Canada. And sometimes a volcano can be dangerous without actually erupting. Lake Nyos in Cameroon is a well-known -and feared- example. What happened in the eruption of Mount Kazbek that made it such a catastrophe?”
Explore the famous volcanic disaster that resulted from a glacier-melting event in 2002 here.
Benthic Microbial Mats in Meltwater from Collins Glacier
From Polar Biology: “Most of Fildes Peninsula is ice-free during summer thereby allowing for formation of networks of creeks with meltwater from Collins Glacier and snowmelt. A variety of benthic microbial mats develop within these creeks. The composition of these microbial communities has not been studied in detail. In this report, clone libraries of bacterial and cyanobacterial 16S rRNA genes were used to describe the microbial community structure of four mats near a shoreline of Drake Passage. Samples were collected from four microbial mats, two at an early developmental stage (December) and two collected latter in late summer (April). Sequence analysis showed that filamentous Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were the most abundant ribotypes.”
From Nature: “The Greenland ice sheet (GIS) is losing mass at an increasing rate due to surface melt and flow acceleration in outlet glaciers… Recently it was suggested that there may be a hidden heat source beneath GIS caused by a higher than expected geothermal heat flux (GHF) from the Earth’s interior. Here we present the first direct measurements of GHF from beneath a deep fjord basin in Northeast Greenland. Temperature and salinity time series (2005–2015) in the deep stagnant basin water are used to quantify a GHF of 93 ± 21 mW m−2 which confirm previous indirect estimated values below GIS. A compilation of heat flux recordings from Greenland show the existence of geothermal heat sources beneath GIS and could explain high glacial ice speed areas such as the Northeast Greenland ice stream.”
Blister Infection on the Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
From University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center: “Whitebark pine is a keystone and foundation tree species in high elevation ecosystems of the Rocky Mountains. At alpine treelines along the eastern Rocky Mountain Front and in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, whitebark pine often initiates tree islands through facilitation, thereby shaping vegetation pattern. This role will likely diminish if whitebark pine succumbs to white pine blister rust infection, climate change stress, and mountain pine beetle infestations. Here, we established baseline measurements of whitebark pine’s importance and blister infection rates at two alpine treelines in Grand Teton National Park.”
Read more about the blister infection on Whitebark pine here.
Layer upon layer of snow, built up over thousands of years, ice cores are an archive of Earth’s past. Taken from ice sheets and glaciers, these cores are used for scientific discovery of the climate changes that Earth may have gone through.
This is the focus of Peggy Weil’s “88 cores,” a four-and-a-half hour video descent two miles through the Greenland Ice Sheet in one continuous pan that goes back more than 110,000 years. It aims to explore the intersections of polar ice, time and humanity. “88 cores” is being shown for the first time as the second part of The Climate Museum’s “In Human Time” exhibition from January 19 to February 11.
“The film is not a scientific document, but it is informed by science. Although much of the data gleaned from ice cores is invisible (analysis of gasses, ECM data) the ice itself is visually compelling. The work acknowledges the immensity and grandeur of the ice (and the human effort to understand it) as we contemplate its fragility,” states Weil.
Along with the video, still images of the ice cores will also be on display and accompanied by other artifacts and media that offers context on ice core science and the Arctic.
The exhibition is being presented in partnership with the Parsons School of Design’s Sheila Johnson Design Center at The Arnold and Sheila Aronson Galleries in New York on Fifth Avenue.
Greenland is a landscape dominated by ice. The Greenland Ice Sheet flows into terminal glaciers, which calve into icebergs, which in winter are locked in by sea ice. Ice shapes the entire food web, from ocean microbes to the fish that fuel 90 percent of Greenland’s GDP.
The relationship between glaciers and Greenlandic fisheries just became clearer with the publication of a recent paper in Global Change Biology. The study found that coastal productivity in Greenlandic fjords is determined by whether the glaciers that flow into the fjords terminate on land, or in the sea.
“Many people think that there aren’t so many things happening in the Arctic,” the paper’s lead author, Lorenz Meire, told GlacierHub. “But during the three of four months of real summer, glaciers melt really fast and the fjords are very dynamic,” he said.
Meire and his coauthors compared Young Sound, which receives meltwater only from land-terminating glaciers, and southwest Greenland’s Godthåbsfjord, which is fed by melt from three land-terminating and three marine-terminating glaciers. They found that both were shaped by the glacial inputs, which in summer freshen the surface water and create a stratified water column.
Despite these similarities, the researchers found that Godthåbsfjord was far more productive than Young Sound. In summer, a large “bloom” of phytoplankton grows in Godthåbsfjord, supporting a dynamic food web of krill, other zooplankton, small fish, and migrating animals like whales, seals and halibut. In Young Sound, a small bloom during spring occurs. The fjord is quite unproductive during summer, and the waters cannot support such a diversity of animals.
This difference is due to the upwelling of cold, deep, nutrient-rich seawater that occurs in Godthåbsfjord. Melt enters the fjord underwater at the marine-terminating glaciers. Because it is less dense than the surrounding seawater, the freshwater rises buoyantly to the surface, bringing deep seawater up with it. This seawater delivers nutrients like nitrate, a limiting factor for growth in the ocean, to the phytoplankton who live near the water’s surface.
In contrast, there is no upwelling in Young Sound, and as a result the water is nutrient-poor and 12 times less productive than Godthåbsfjord. Walruses and eider ducks, the top predators in Young Sound, feed on shellfish that live on the bottom.
Greenland’s food web is shaped by glaciers even further. Without knowing which type of glaciers flow into a given fjord, one could guess based solely on the number of fishing boats in the area. Halibut fisherman seek the productive waters fueled by marine-terminating glaciers, but this choice comes with risk. “It’s amazing how the fisherman go fishing in regions that are quite dangerous to sail in, but they keep going because there is a lot of fish,” said Meire. Between changeable weather, cold water, dense icebergs, and sea ice in the winter, many hazards threaten the halibut fisherman, who generally work solo in small dinghies. “It’s much easier in land-terminating fjords because there are no icebergs to destroy your boat,” he added.
Even from land, it is clear which fjords are only supplied freshwater by land-terminating glaciers and which are home to marine-terminating glaciers. The fisheries are located close to population centers, and Greenland’s big cities are located next to marine-terminating glaciers, according to Meire. “Almost every spot in Greenland where people live or have lived in the past is close to a marine-terminating glacier. People are aware that these regions are very productive, they understand that the glacier is fueling something,” he said.
The question, of course, is what will happen to ecosystems, fisheries and towns as climate change turns Greenland’s marine-terminating glaciers into land-terminating glaciers. “It’s scary to see how fast glaciers are retreating,” said Meire, such as in Godthåbsfjord, where the glaciers have moved back 5-8 km in the last five years. Currently, he added, people in Greenland tend to view global warming as a positive thing, which will make winters easier and provide opportunities for more agriculture. Because the impacts for fisheries are so far in the future, the industry has not yet started to act to mitigate the eventual changes.
“For us, climate change is just a fact,” he said. “Everyone accepts what’s happening. We can make people aware that it will have large consequences on our ecosystem and try to stimulate people to take actions against it.”
Mention the Greenland Ice Sheet, and chances are that you conjure up the image of a barren, white wilderness, dominated by ice and devoid of life. In fact, the ice sheet and its coastal outlet glaciers support thousands of small pools that teem with bacteria and animals. “A world of microbes exists in these tiny, frozen, cold pools on glaciers. There’s life, death, and predation happening,” marveled glaciologist Aurora Roth.
These little pools are called cryoconite holes, pockets in the surface of glaciers that are usually ovular or circular. Cryoconite holes can be quite small and shallow, or as wide as a meter and up to half as deep. “People first notice cryoconites because they look so odd, like honeycomb. The textures are visually striking,” says Roth. She added that they constitute such an extreme environment that scientists look to them to understand the evolution of simple life forms on Mars and other planetary bodies. A recent paper in Limnology by Krzysztof Zawierucha et al. analyzed cryoconite communities on the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet and found that the distribution of microfauna at the edge of the sheet is random, without clear ecological determinants like water chemistry or nutrient availability.
Cryoconite holes (and their larger versions, puddles and lakes) are full of water, and contain debris deposited by wind, rockfall or water flow. Small debris particles can be bound together by cyanobacteria into granules, which eventually erode into mud. Both granules and mud foster communities of bacteria and animals that comprise the biotic hotspots of the ice sheet. Microorganisms are the top consumers in cryoconite food chains, a position impossible for them to occupy in most other ecosystems, where they are eaten by larger organisms. Such unusual dynamics make “this icy world more and more fascinating,” Zawierucha told GlacierHub. “Despite the fact that they are in microscopic size, they are apex consumers on the glacier surface, so they are like polar bears in the Arctic or wolves in forests,” he said.
Zawierucha conducted his fieldwork at the beginning of polar autumn and was struck by the changing colors of the tundra, the musk oxen and the impressiveness of the ice sheet, which together created a landscape that felt right out of a fairy tale. As he trekked through wind and rain to collect samples from cryoconite holes, puddles and lakes, he often felt as if he was in a science fiction movie about “icy worlds in other galaxies.”
Back in the lab, Zawierucha found rotifers and tardigrades swimming around in his samples, two hardy invertebrate groups that also live in freshwater, mosses, and for the tardigrade, extreme environments–tardigrades are the only animals that can survive outer space. The invertebrates were far more common in granules than mud. The paper suggests two reasons for this disparity: the mechanical flushing action of water that forms the mud and the food source the granules provide for the invertebrates. The samples boomed with other types of life, as well: they contained thirteen types of algae and cyanobacteria, plus different groups of heterotrophic bacteria.
The flushing process, and the way it affects the animals which it displaces, raises many questions for Zawierucha. How much wind or rain is required to remove the animals from the cryoconites? “How many of them are flushed to downstream ecosystems, and how many stay in the weathering crust on glaciers?” he wonders. And what happens once the animals are out of their holes? Zawierucha harbors what he calls a “small dream,” to find active animals in the subglacial zone (the hydraulic systems under a glacier). “If they are flushed to the icy wells, are they able to survive under ice?” he asks.
In the future, Zawierucha would like to continue to close what he calls the “huge knowledge gap” between the vast amount of research devoted to microbial ecology on glaciers and the dearth of information about animals. “Even if their distribution is random, they still may play an important ecological role in grazing on other organisms,” he believes.
Tardigrades, some species of which are black in color, may have an even bigger effect on glacial dynamics and global climate. Tiny though they are, populations of black tardigrades in cryoconite holes, which Zawierucha has found on alpine glaciers, can reduce albedo and increase melting of the glacier surface. This may constitute a positive feedback loop that hastens glacial melting, but more studies are required to prove this, Zawierucha says.
One positive feedback loop is clear. Higher temperatures increase the melting of glacier surfaces and spur microbial activity, which in turn speeds up the process of melting, according to Zawierucha. As the Greenland Ice Sheet continues to melt, the animals that call it home will be disturbed, though it is difficult to anticipate the end result. How tardigrades, especially species unique to glacial habitats, will respond to higher flushing rates and removal from glaciers is of particular interest. Perhaps the tardigrades will adapt, or perhaps they will go extinct, says Zawierucha.
Faced with an uncertain future, glaciology projects that cross disciplines make Roth hopeful. “It’s a good example of what happens when you look at a system through an interdisciplinary lens,” she told GlacierHub. “When you bring in a biologist, you see the difference in the questions they ask and things they unearth.”
Now is the time for such interdisciplinary research: more studies of animals living on the Greenland Ice Sheet will help scientists understand how this important freshwater reservoir, and Earth’s climate, will respond to global warming.
Cracks in ice shelves have appeared in disaster movies as ominous signs of global warming. One memorable instance occurs in The Day After Tomorrow when a paleoclimatologist is drilling ice cores at the Larsen Ice Shelf. The shelf breaks apart, leading to a series of cataclysmic climate events that disrupt the North Atlantic Ocean circulation. In July, a real- life crack appeared at Petermann Glacier in Greenland and has been growing steadily ever since. Two scientists, Andreas Muenchow and Keith Nicholls, are investigating the crack and hypothesize that it is caused by an increase in air and ocean temperatures.
Petermann Glacier connects the Greenland ice sheet to the Arctic Ocean at 81°N. It is approximately 43 miles long and nearly 10 miles wide. This is not the first crack or full break of ice at Petermann Glacier, according to a Washington Post article by Chris Mooney. Since 2010, entire slabs of the Petermann glacier have broken off.
In fact, during two occasions, the glacier lost an area of ice six times the size of Manhattan, according to Mooney. This loss raises enormous concern because the glacier serves to slow down the flow of ice downhill from the Greenland ice sheet into the ocean. For this reason, experts call Petermann a “floodgate.” If the glacier that sits behind Petermann melts, it could raise sea levels by about a foot.
A recent paper published in the Geophysical Research Letters describes this type of calving at Petermann as common. The authors explain that it is usually assumed that ocean-ice dynamics are not involved. However, evidence from the Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica found that ocean forcing can play a role in the melting.
Muenchow and Nicholls expect similar dynamics are occurring with Petermann Glacier. They have been on several expeditions to the glacier in order to measure ocean temperatures underneath the shelf itself. They want to see if rising ocean temperatures are also detrimental to the glacier and causing the melting from below.
If warm ocean water were melting the base of the glacier, it would only accelerate the destruction of Petermann. While it is extremely difficult to know definitively, they hypothesize Petermann’s river and the channel beneath it are playing a role in the melting.
Data from 2015 and 2016 demonstrates that the temperatures of the warm Atlantic layer in the ocean have increased. With both air and ocean temperatures getting warmer, it is unclear how much longer Petermann Glacier will be intact, leaving frightening implications for the melting of the enormous glacier behind it. The crack in the Petermann Glacier and the possible ensuing events show that news from the ice can sometimes be just as scary as the scenes in disaster movies.