Roundup: Meltwater, Ice Loss and Salmon

Climate Trends of the Upper Indus Basin

From Earth Systems Dynamics: “Largely depending on the meltwater from the Hindukush–Karakoram–Himalaya, withdrawals from the upper Indus Basin (UIB) contribute half of the surface water availability in Pakistan, indispensable for agricultural production systems, industrial and domestic use, and hydropower generation. Despite such importance, a comprehensive assessment of prevailing state of relevant climatic variables determining the water availability is largely missing. Against this background, this study assesses the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, diurnal temperature range and precipitation from 18 stations (1250–4500 m a.s.l.) for their overlapping period of record (1995–2012) and, separately, from six stations of their long-term record (1961–2012).”

Learn more about climate trends and runoff of the upper Indus Basin here.

A township near the Himalayas (Source: GRID Arendel/Lawrence Hislop/Flickr).


Proglacial Lake Cores from Southeast Greenland

From Quaternary Science Reviews: “Accelerating ice loss during recent years has made the Greenland Ice Sheet one of the largest single contributors to global sea level rise, accounting for 0.5 of the total 3.2 mm yr−1. This loss is predicted to continue and will most likely increase in the future as a consequence of global warming. However, the sensitivity of glaciers and ice caps (GICs) in Greenland to prolonged warm periods is less well constrained and geological records documenting the long-term glacial history are needed to put recent observations into a broader perspective. Here we report the results from three proglacial lakes where fluctuations in local glaciers located at different altitudes in Kobbefjord, southwest Greenland have been recorded.”

Read more about three proglacial lake records from Kobbefjord, southeast Greenland here.

A three-dimensional model of Kobbefjord based on aerial photographs showing the proglacial lakes analyzed in this study (Source: Larsen et al.).


Modeling Stream Habitats and Salmon Genetic Diversity

From Journal of Fish Biology: “Measures of genetic diversity within and among populations and historical geomorphological data on stream landscapes were used in model simulations based on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) to examine hypotheses of the relative importance of stream features (geomorphology and age) associated with colonization events and gene flow for coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch breeding in recently deglaciated streams (50–240 years b.p.) in Glacier Bay National Park (GBNP), Alaska. Population estimates of genetic diversity including heterozygosity and allelic richness declined significantly and monotonically from the oldest and largest to youngest and smallest GBNP streams.

Discover more about the genetic diversity of coho salmon here

A Coho Salmon takes a peek at where the people are. Source (Flickr/California Department of Fish and Wildlife).