New Satellite Imagery Shows Rapid Pace of Andean Glacier Melt

Climate change has long been known to be a stressor on glaciers the world over, but a recent study published in Nature Geoscience, reveals just how bad it’s been for those in the Andes: Glaciers in this South American mountain range have the unfortunate distinction of being both the fastest melting and the largest contributors to sea level rise in the world.

Glacial melt has been watched carefully for decades, but because of limitations in technology and methodologies, scientists haven’t gotten the most precise picture of how much melting is occurring, or how fast.

Previous techniques looked at regional locations scattered throughout the Andes like the Northern Patagonian Icefield and then extrapolated those findings. Others gave hazy estimates from low-resolution, remote-sensing images. But these methods can miss individual glaciers and clusters of just a few or more.

In an attempt to refine understanding of Andes-wide glacial melt, the researchers harnessed the image-collecting power of a satellite with the Asimovian name of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). ASTER has been taking high-resolution, stereoscopic images of the Andes since 2000. By compiling these images and integrating them into digital models, the study’s scientists were not only able to get a new ice loss estimate for the entire Andes, but also for individual regions and individual glaciers over the past two decades. 

With this high resolution dataset, the researchers determined that the entire glacial range in the Andes shrunk about 23 gigatons (1 gigaton=1 billion tons) since 2000—more than previous studies have found—and account for 10 percent of global sea level rise. At this rate, some of these ancient glaciers will be gone in just over two centuries—but the rate is accelerating.

Digging through the data, the researchers also parsed out an array of differing melt rates between glaciers that revealed the areas of the heaviest melting: Patagonia (Chile, Argentina) and the tropical Andes (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia). Previous research has shown that low altitude glaciers in some of these areas like Peru have lost as much as 50 percent of their mass since 1970.   

“[Patagonia] is the region that contains the largest surface of ice, and [so] it’s normal to expect that the highest loss is going to be there,” lead author and glaciologist Inés Dussaillant told GlacierHub over the phone, adding that glaciers terminating in oceans and large lakes like those in Patagonia also experience heavy amounts of calving—which accounts for more than half of all the ice mass loss observed in the Andes. The glaciers in the tropics—mostly in Ecuador and Colombia—Dussaillant explained, are relatively small and highly sensitive to changes in climate. “A small change in temperature can make tropical glaciers lose a lot of mass,” she said. 

Glaciar el Juncal, Región de Valparaíso, Chile (Credit: Eyal Levy)

Perhaps the most troubling of the team’s findings, however, dealt with glaciers’ contribution of freshwater to rivers through snow and ice melt. During the summer months, snow and ice melt from glaciers flows into streams and rivers, adding to the overall water availability of a particular region. This is particularly important in the Dry Andes of the northern and central regions of Chile and Argentina. Since 2010, these heavily populated semi-arid regions have been strapped in what climatologists have called a megadrought. The team found that increased glacial melting in these areas since 2009 actually helped to mitigate some of the most severe impacts of the drought. But as glaciers continue to shrink because of anthropogenic climate change, their ability to act as this natural salve is going to diminish or disappear.

“They are not going to be able to contribute to rivers eternally,” remarked Dussaillant. “There will be a moment where they’ll no longer be able to contribute during these periods of drought.” 

Campos de Hielo Sur, Parque Torres del Paine Región de Magallanes, Chile
(Credit: Eyal Levy)

This point highlights the larger implications of the study, which is that millions of people live near, and depend upon, these glaciers in the Andes, and the drastic reduction or total disappearance of them is going to have potentially severe consequences. Dussaillant, who is Chilean, pointed out that more than half of the population of Chile lives in or near the capital city Santiago, which lies in this region.

Eyal Levy, an industrial engineer and Andean climber who is also from Chile, told GlacierHub that Chileans are “starting to become very worried about the water stress. He added that rural areas and poorer communes around Santiago have been “seriously impacted.” 

Glaciers are a conspicuous part of the everyday scenery, Levy said, and their shrinking takes a toll on people’s emotions. “People talk about melting glaciers with sadness, worry, and without knowing what to do,” he said.

Dussaillant hopes that the high resolution dataset gathered from this study will be used by other glaciologists for local or regional studies. “I study glaciers because they tell us what is happening,” she said. “It’s showing us that climate is changing, and the climate is a global thing. So what’s happening in the Andes … it concerns us all.” 

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Snow Algae Thrives in Some of Earth’s Most Extreme Conditions

A new study found snow algae on Nieves Penitentes at high elevations in the Chilean Andes.

“The expedition was an epic and very arduous trip to a remote mountain,” Steven Schmidt, a University of Colorado, Boulder professor and one of the paper’s authors, told Glacierhub. “[The] original goal was to sample a lake below a remnant glacier high on the mountain, but the lake was frozen solid and the winds were horrendous,” Schmidt explained, “so we worked lower on the mountain and carried out the first ever search for life on Nieves Penitentes.”

Nieves Penitentes are elongated ice structures. They form when windblown snow banks build up and melt due to a combination of high radiation, low humidity, and dry winds. The snow melts into the pinnacle-shape which earned Penitentes their name—they are said to resemble monks in white robes paying penance. Penitentes are important to the dry, high-altitude areas where they are found because they can be a periodic source of meltwater for the rocky ground.

Nieves Penitentes at the research site
(Source: Steven Schimdt)

Schimdt described how the researchers were surprised to find patches of red ice on the sides of some of the penitentes. “We took samples from these patches and later found that they contained some unique snow algae and a thriving community of other microbes,” he told GlacierHub.

The study was published the journal of Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research

“Snow algae are microscopic plant-like organisms that are able to live on and within the snowpack,” plant and algal physiologist Matthew Davey, who was not involved in the study, told GlacierHub. Snow algae is also known as watermelon snow because of the color it creates on the surface of snow and ice. The snow’s watermelon hue is caused by an abundance of natural reddish pigments called carotenoids which also shield the algae from ultraviolet light, drought, and cold, contributing to their ability to survive in extreme environments. 

Red snow algae on Nieves Penitentes 
(Source: Steven Schmidt)

Researchers don’t entirely understand how the algae bloom in high density given the low temperatures and high light levels they live with. “There is evidence that they can be deposited by wind, they could already be in the rock surface from previous years or they could be brought by animals,” Davey explained. “Once the snow has melted slightly, so there is liquid water, the algae can reproduce and bloom within days or weeks. During this time they can start green, then turn red, or stay green or stay red—it depends on the algal species,” he said of their formation process. 

The samples of snow algae were collected from Penitentes on the Chilean side of Volcán Llullaillaco. It is the second tallest active volcano in the world after Ojos del Salado and it sits on Chile’s border with Argentina. The Penitentes were between 1-1.5 meters tall. The presence of snow algae on Penitentes is notable because the algae can change the albedo of ice and increase melting rates.

Lara Vimercati and Jack Darcy, two members of the research team, on Volcán Llullaillaco. 
(Source: Steven Schmidt )

The study describes the environment that the samples were collected in as “perhaps the best earthly analog for surface and near-surface soils on Mars,” opening the door for implications in astrobiological research. The high elevation where the snow algae was found is responsible for the conditions that create an almost extraterrestrial environment; there are very high levels of ultraviolet radiation, intense daily freeze-thaw cycles, and one of the driest climates on the planet. 

Penitente-like structures were recently found on Pluto and possibly on Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons. In the context of these discoveries, Schmidt said that “penitentes and the harsh environment that surrounds them provide a new terrestrial analog for astrobiological studies of life beyond Earth.” The finding in the new study that “penitentes are oases of life in the otherwise barren expanses” pushes the boundaries of the current understanding of the cold-dry limits of life. 

The surface of Pluto’s Tartarus Dorsa region, where penitentes were found.
(Source: NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI)

Lead author Lara Vimercati reflected on the study’s broader implications. “Our study shows how no matter how challenging the environmental conditions, life finds a way when there is availability of liquid water,” she said.

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Unearthing Rock Glaciers: Hidden, Hydrological Landforms

Rock glaciers are distinctive, geomorphological landmasses composed of rock, ice, snow, mud, and water. Unlike exposed ice glaciers, the majority of ice and water is located within the rock glaciers’ underground permafrost. Above-ground characteristics of rock glaciers include unique tongue-shaped terminations, rock debris, and mountainous ridges.

Rock glaciers are frequently overshadowed by neighboring ice glaciers and overlooked due to their hidden nature. Although often forgotten, rock glaciers are common features in many mountain regions of the world and provide supplementary streamflow when water is needed most during dry, warm years.

Cross-section of a rock glacier which includes the above-ground layer, the permafrost core, and the hydrological system (Source: Schaffer et al.)

A Chilean-based scientific review team, from the Center for Advanced Studies in Arid Zones (CEAZA), published a study that evaluates the hydrological value of rock glaciers in the semiarid Andes (SA). Rock glaciers in the SA are rarely studied, so this group, led by scientist Nicole Schaffer, attempts to shed light on the region’s hidden landforms.

The SA is “a transition zone between the extremely arid region north of 25°S and the humid climate south of 40°S … over the twentieth century, total precipitation has declined and desertification has been recognized internationally as a critical problem,” states Schaffer et al.

Using published data sampling from the La Laguna Basin in Chile, the review team estimates glacial water contributions of the Llano de las Liebres, Las Tolas, Empalme, and Tapado Rock Glaciers using discharge measurements. Water discharge measurements collect the volume of moving water down a stream per unit of time.

Overall, rock glaciers in the semiarid Andes are believed to provide meaningful contributions to streamflows. The team’s findings indicate that the rock glaciers in the La Laguna Basin contribute between 9 to 20 percent of the total streamflow in the region.

How Will Rock Glaciers Respond to Warming Temperatures?

Through climate projections and historical evidence, the scientific community believes that rock glaciers will likely be less vulnerable to climate change.

North Cascades, Washington National Park (Source: Richard Droker, Flickr)

Due to the sheer size and high elevation of rock glaciers in the Chilean Andes, there will likely be delayed response times to climate change. As temperatures increase, smaller and lower elevation rock glaciers will likely thaw before substantial, high mountain rock glaciers.

U.S. Forest Service scientist Connie Millar studies both the historical and ongoing influences of climate change on rock glaciers in the western U.S. Millar’s research includes hydrological studies of rock glaciers in the Great Basin and ice glacier canyon mapping in the Sierra Nevada.

Millar said: “[Rock glaciers may] lag in response to climate change and maybe it’s more on scale of hundreds of years rather than thousands of years and it depends of course on where it is … and how quickly and how they respond to warming.”

North Cascades, Washington National Park (Source: Richard Droker, Flickr)

Alexander Brenning, scientist at Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Germany, also offers insight on the potential impacts of climate change.

Brenning shared: “Rock glaciers are complex systems that may react in various ways. The most worrying of all scenarios is the acceleration and even collapse of rock glaciers. Climatic warming may play a role in this scenario since it is expected to increase the availability of liquid water within the otherwise frozen rock glacier.”

Ultimately, rock glacial responses to climate change are highly variable and dependent on glacial size, elevation, and geographical location. To learn more about the climatic impacts, greater awareness of rock glaciers and further in-depth research is required.