A new study found snow algae on Nieves Penitentes at high elevations in the Chilean Andes.
“The expedition was an epic and very arduous trip to a remote mountain,” Steven Schmidt, a University of Colorado, Boulder professor and one of the paper’s authors, told Glacierhub. “[The] original goal was to sample a lake below a remnant glacier high on the mountain, but the lake was frozen solid and the winds were horrendous,” Schmidt explained, “so we worked lower on the mountain and carried out the first ever search for life on Nieves Penitentes.”
Nieves Penitentes are elongated ice structures. They form when windblown snow banks build up and melt due to a combination of high radiation, low humidity, and dry winds. The snow melts into the pinnacle-shape which earned Penitentes their name—they are said to resemble monks in white robes paying penance. Penitentes are important to the dry, high-altitude areas where they are found because they can be a periodic source of meltwater for the rocky ground.
Schimdt described how the researchers were surprised to find patches of red ice on the sides of some of the penitentes. “We took samples from these patches and later found that they contained some unique snow algae and a thriving community of other microbes,” he told GlacierHub.
The study was published the journal of Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.
“Snow algae are microscopic plant-like organisms that are able to live on and within the snowpack,” plant and algal physiologist Matthew Davey, who was not involved in the study, told GlacierHub. Snow algae is also known as watermelon snow because of the color it creates on the surface of snow and ice. The snow’s watermelon hue is caused by an abundance of natural reddish pigments called carotenoids which also shield the algae from ultraviolet light, drought, and cold, contributing to their ability to survive in extreme environments.
Researchers don’t entirely understand how the algae bloom in high density given the low temperatures and high light levels they live with. “There is evidence that they can be deposited by wind, they could already be in the rock surface from previous years or they could be brought by animals,” Davey explained. “Once the snow has melted slightly, so there is liquid water, the algae can reproduce and bloom within days or weeks. During this time they can start green, then turn red, or stay green or stay red—it depends on the algal species,” he said of their formation process.
The samples of snow algae were collected from Penitentes on the Chilean side of Volcán Llullaillaco. It is the second tallest active volcano in the world after Ojos del Salado and it sits on Chile’s border with Argentina. The Penitentes were between 1-1.5 meters tall. The presence of snow algae on Penitentes is notable because the algae can change the albedo of ice and increase melting rates.
The study describes the environment that the samples were collected in as “perhaps the best earthly analog for surface and near-surface soils on Mars,” opening the door for implications in astrobiological research. The high elevation where the snow algae was found is responsible for the conditions that create an almost extraterrestrial environment; there are very high levels of ultraviolet radiation, intense daily freeze-thaw cycles, and one of the driest climates on the planet.
Penitente-like structures were recently found on Pluto and possibly on Europa, one of Jupiter’s moons. In the context of these discoveries, Schmidt said that “penitentes and the harsh environment that surrounds them provide a new terrestrial analog for astrobiological studies of life beyond Earth.” The finding in the new study that “penitentes are oases of life in the otherwise barren expanses” pushes the boundaries of the current understanding of the cold-dry limits of life.
Lead author Lara Vimercati reflected on the study’s broader implications. “Our study shows how no matter how challenging the environmental conditions, life finds a way when there is availability of liquid water,” she said.
As my year of research on glacier dynamics and water security in Chile came to a close in December 2018, I started searching for ways to put my newfound knowledge to good use while also soaking up the Patagonian summer. Through a bit of finesse and luck, I found a glacier education and guiding position for a polar expedition cruise company called One Ocean Expeditions. I felt like I was walking in a dream as I boarded an ice class cruise ship departing from Ushuaia, Argentina.
Through the five trips I worked on earlier this year, I had the great fortune to visit and interpret a myriad of glaciers from the shallow coves of the Antarctic Peninsula to the deep labyrinth of the Chilean fjords. Each glacier told a unique story, but a common theme emerged that links them all. While these massive, flowing systems may humble us with their power and enormity, they are deeply sensitive to their surroundings and profoundly affected by human-induced climate change.
There were four sites in my travels from the Antarctic Circle (66°33’S) north to Santiago, Chile (33°25’S) that best illustrated this duality for me.
Wilkinson and Murphy Glaciers,
Crystal Sound, Antarctica
The sun peaked over the horizon as we crossed into the Antarctic Circle and washed an orange light over the endless whiteness of the Stefan Ice Piedmont and Wilkinson and Murphy Glaciers. I couldn’t ask for a more majestic first glimpse of Antarctica.
Stefan is a modest size for an ice piedmont, a term to describe a low-lying expanse of ice that gradually slopes from the edge of a mountain to the sea. In comparison, the Wilkinson and Murphy Glacier complex is quite large, serving as an outlet for the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelf through a network of multiple glacial valleys that converge to tumble down to the sea.
waded through a bay of asymmetrical, peculiar icebergs that rivaled the size of
our eight-story ship. Unlike the more uniformed, tabular icebergs we later
encountered, which had neatly separated from ice shelves, these icebergs likely
calved off Wilkinson and Murphy or a neighboring tidewater glacier.
Crystal Sound set the stage for Antarctica as a dreamy, vast-beyond-comprehension, and complex continent of ice—a place that feels other-worldly until you realize these calving glaciers and massive melting icebergs feed the same ocean we all share.
Avalanche and Astudillo Glaciers, Paradise
Moving north, Paradise Harbor proved to be my favorite stop on each trip. It offers the best of the Antarctic Peninsula in mid-summer—calm and beautiful scenery, feeding humpback whales, porpoising penguins, and playful seals. We would start the day with a hike from the Almirante Brown Argentine base to a gentoo penguin colony and up to a bluff with a sweeping view of the massive Avalanche and Astudillo Glaciers.
One of my colleagues commented that in the seven years she has visited Paradise Harbor, she’s witnessed Astudillo Glacier recede noticeably. I’m yet to find an up-to-date study that could corroborate or rebut this observation, but it would be consistent with the behavior of the glacier in the late 20th century—displaying a frontal recession from 1973 to 1989 to the LIMA observations in the early 2000s.
our days were tranquil, I wondered what the collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf,
just over the ridge, felt like here and what the break-up of the even larger
Larsen C Ice Shelf will bring.
Serrano Glacier, Cordillera Darwin
Ice Field, Chile
Although they were connected until about 40 million years ago, the Antarctic Peninsula and southern tip of South America today feel like two separate worlds. The hardy, dwarfed vegetation of the Cordillera Darwin is a wash of green in comparison to the Antarctic landscape, and the glaciers are smaller, more active, and radiate a rich blue hue.
Serrano is a northern-facing glacier deep in the Agostini Fjord and outlet for the Cordillera Darwin Ice Field, the third largest expanse of ice in South America. On a sunny and wind-free morning, we maneuvered closer to Serrano’s face and marveled at a thick medial moraine that traced up to the convergence of two upper branches of the glacier.
The Serrano Glacier, like the vast majority of glaciers in the region, is losing mass. Between 2000 and 2011, its area thinned at an average rate of about 1.0±0.4 meters of water equivalent per year and, overall, the Ice Field lost an average of -3.9±1.5 gigatons of ice per year.
struck me about Serrano is how gorgeous, massive, and storied it is, while
remaining practically anonymous—located in a region that few have even heard
of, Serrano is rarely visited or studied.
Pío XI Glacier, Southern Patagonia
Ice Field, Chile
In contrast, Pío XI, also known as Brüggen Glacier, is one of the most famous glaciers in South America. At a whooping 1,300 square kilometers, it is about as large as Los Angeles and is the biggest glacier on the continent—and one of the only that is advancing.
Between 1945 and 1995, Pío XI advanced 10 kilometers at speeds of up to 50 meters per day, paving over 400-year-old trees and sealing off the upper section of the fjord, which brought about the formation of a lake. It has since slowed considerably, as warmer temperatures have caused more precipitation to fall as rain instead of snow and its primary flow path has shifted from the south terminus to the north.
Scientists surmise that Pío XI surged, while its neighbors continued retreating, possibly because of high snow accumulation in its abnormally large basin, fjord-glacier interactions, elevated water pressure beneath the glacier, changes in geothermal activity, or sediment build-up at its terminus.
a famous and peculiar glacier, I could barely contain my excitement as we
cruised into Eyre Fjord and watched the gargantuan, blue mass come into focus from
the upper deck. I trailed behind Australian glaciologist Ian Goodwin with his
black beret and sharp goatee as we walked along Pío XI’s wide southern terminal
moraine and searched for the source of a sediment-rich stream gushing out from
the bottom of the glacier.
XI was unlike any other glacier we’d seen—the water was saturated with sediment
and free of icebergs, the face was a modest height and sloped away from us, and
we observed no calving events that day. The preposterous amount of sediment and
continuous purge of meltwater begged a closer look. We scribbled notes and took
pictures to report back to colleagues and pondered how we could return with a
A cryosphere in crisis
The recent headlines in Greenland remind us the cryosphere is changing faster than we can grasp. Our modeling and monitoring is more accurate than ever, but the general public is just beginning to understand the complexity and urgency of the issue.
I found that these cruises offered a powerful platform to connect with folks from across the political spectrum through an immersive and emotional crash course in glaciology. I’m not yet sure how, but there must be a way we can create equally moving but more accessible and sustainable educational opportunities. As I reflect comfortably at home, Wilkinson and Murphy, Avalanche and Astudillo, Serrano, and Pío XI continue to flow.
Stretching over 7,000 kilometers across seven countries, the Andes are the world’s longest mountain range. They make up the southeastern portion of the Ring of Fire and are well-known for their abundant volcanoes.
The Chilean Andes are home to 90 active volcanoes, all monitored by the Chilean National Geology and Mining Service (Sernageomin). The agency categorizes volcanic activity using four distinct alert levels: green (normal level of activity), yellow (increased level of activity), orange (probable development of an eruption in the short-term), and red (eruption is ongoing or imminent). Increased volcanic activity is associated with frequent earthquakes; plumes of gas, rocks, or ash; and lava flows.
Two areas monitored by Sernageomin are currently showing signs of increased activity: the Nevados de Chillán and Planchón-Peteroa volcanic complexes. The agency issued orange and yellow alert levels for them, respectively.
Nevados de Chillán Volcanoes: Orange Alert
The Nevados de Chillán volcano complex is comprised of several glacier-covered volcanic peaks. When these volcanoes erupt, the glacial ice sitting atop them melts and mixes with lava, which can result in dangerous lahars, or mudflows. Several small earthquakes and the formation of new gas vents led Sernageomin to issue a yellow alert on December 31, 2015. (To view a detailed map of the Nevados de Chillán complex, click here.)
On April 5, 2018, Sernageomin upgraded the Nevados de Chillán’s yellow alert to an orange alert, following thousands of tremors and a thick, white column of smoke rising from the area. This signaled the likelihood of an eruption in the near future.
Throwback: 1.4 km high ash column from Nevados de Chillan volcano’s eruption on 14 July 2018, Chile’s large composite stratovolcanic complex composed of 3 overlapping #stratovolcanoes(Volcan Nevado, Volcan Chillan & Volcan Nuevo) on a NNW-SSE- trending line – P.S. Miranda’s photo pic.twitter.com/teNFiFIQL4
Sernageomin’s most recent volcanic activity report for Nevados de Chillán, issued on February 11, 2019, cited persistent seismic activity, which is directly related to increased frequency of explosions, along with the growth and/or destruction of the lava dome that lies in the crater. The expected eruption is most likely to have moderate to low explosive power, but sporadic observations over the last year have shown higher than average energy levels.
On February 15, 2019, the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in Buenos Aires documented a volcanic-ash plume reaching 3,700 meters high at Nevados de Chillán, an example of the above mentioned “higher than average energy levels.”
Nevados de Chillan, Chile’s composite stratovolcanic complex of 3 overlapping stratovolcanoes (Nevado, Chillan & Nuevo) was monitored #erupting on 31 Jan 2019. Seismograph recorded LP quake, tremor & volcano-tectonic quake during the past observation period- Source: Sernageomin pic.twitter.com/ApWcJv5UFR
In our Video of the Week, marine biologists examine how climate change might impact humpback whales in the waters off the coast of Chile. Melting Patagonian glaciers add freshwater to the ocean ecosystem, which is likely to change the water’s chemical composition, threatening the food supply of humpbacks.
Climate change is already affecting humpback migration patterns in other parts of the world. And changing climate conditions around Svalbard, Norway is altering the habitat of white whales.
The video, shared by the AFP news agency, emphasizes the importance of protecting vulnerable, marine ecosystems.
Researchers utilized buoys to gather information. Buoys can be useful in measuring such things as temperature, salinity, and pH levels, which can help monitor ecosystem changes and make projections about future conditions.
Patagonia's chilly waters are a natural laboratory for researchers studying global warming. Glaciers are melting, releasing vast amounts of fresh water into the sea and upsetting marine ecosystems pic.twitter.com/KXE73eoEaR
Turbio Glacier is at the headwaters of Argentina’s Turbio River and flows into Lago Puelo. The glacier descends east from the Chile-Argentina border at 1,500 meters, descending into a low-slope valley at 1,300-1,000 m.
In 1986 the glacier terminated at the southeast end of a buttress at the junction with another valley (red arrow in the image above). The glacier was 4.3 kilometers long and was connected to a headwall segment that extends to 1,500 m. There is no evidence of a lake at the terminus of Turbio Glacier.
Across the divide in Chile, the glacier, seen with a pink arrow in the above image, has a length of 3 km. In 1998 the retreat from 1986 has been modest and no lake has formed at Turbio. Across the border in Chile the glacier has divided into two sections.
By 2017 Turbio Glacier has retreated exposing a new lake. The glacier is essentially devoid of retained snowpack, illustrating the lack of a significant accumulation zone that can sustain it. Across the border in Chile the glacier has nearly disappeared with the lower section revealing a new lake and little retained snowpack indicating it cannot survive.
By 2018 Turbio Glacier has retreated 1.3 km, which is over 30 percent of its total length in 32 years. The glacier is separated from the headwall glacier, which can still shed avalanches onto the lower glacier. It is possible that with additional retreat another lake will be revealed in this valley. The substantial retreat here is comparable with that of nearby Argentina glaciers such as Pico Alto Glacier and Lago Cholila . The retreat is greater than on Tic Toc Glacier to the southwest in Chile.
Cerro Erasmo at 46 degrees South latitude is a short distance north of the Northern Patagonia Icefield and is host to a number of glaciers, the largest of which flows northwest from the mountain. This is referred to as Erasmo Glacier with an area of ~40 square kilometers. Meltwater from this glacier enters Cupquelan Fjord, which is host to a large aquaculture project for Atlantic salmon, producing ~18,000 tons annually. This remote location allows Cooke Aquaculture to protect its farm from environmental contamination.
Runoff from Erasmo Glacier is a key input to the fjord, while Rio Exploradores’s large inflow near the fjord mouth limits inflow from the south. Davies and Glasser (2012) mapped the area of these glaciers and noted a 7 percent decline in glacier area from 1986-2011 of Cerro Erasmo. The recent retreat of the largest glacier in the Cerro Erasmo massif indicates this area retreat rate has increased since 2011. Meier et al (2018) note a 48 percent reduction in glacier area in the Cerro Erasmo and Cerro Hudson region since 1870, with half of that occurring since 1986.
In 1987 Erasmo Glacier had a land-based terminus at the end of a 6-km-long, low-sloped valley tongue. The snowline was at 1,100 meters. In 1998 there is thinning but limited retreat, and the snowline is at 1,250 m.
By 2013 a proglacial lake had formed and there are numerous icebergs visible in the lake (Note Digital Globe image). The snowline is at 1,200-1,250 m in 2013 at the top of the main icefall. By 2016 a large lake had formed, and the snowline is at 1,200 m again at the top of the icefall. By 2016 the terminus has retreated 2.9 km since 1987, generating a lake of the same length.
The snowline in 2016 was at 1,200 m at the top of the icefall. From 2016 to 2018 a further 0.9 km retreat occurred. The 3.8 km retreat from 1998 to 2018 is a rate of ~200 m/year. Thinning upglacier to the expanding ridge from Point A-D is evident. Thinning at Point C has eliminated the overflow into the distributary glacier that had existed. The collapse is ongoing as indicated by the number of icebergs in the lake in 2018. There is an increased glacier surface slope 1 km behind the 2018 glacier front, suggesting the lake will not extend passed this point.
The stonefly is the largest animal inhabiting the glaciers of Patagonia. What the inch-long insect eats and excretes on the ice is central to the overall glacier ecosystem. Also known as the Patagonian Dragon, the stonefly occupies a near-apex position in the truncated glacier food chain. Stonefly larvae develop in glacial meltwater pools, where the larvae spends most of its life as a waterbound nymph, consuming algae, fungi, and other small inhabitants found in cryoconite sediments. The wingless adults wander the ice surface in search of food and mating opportunities. Despite their significant influence on glacier biogeochemical cycles, glacier invertebrates like the stonefly and their associated bacteria remain understudied. New research published in the journal Environmental Microbiology provided the first look at the genetics underlying the gut microbiome of stonefly nymphs.
The research team, comprised of Japanese and Chilean scientists, traveled by horseback and camped at Tyndall Glacier in Chile, collecting samples for analysis in a Tokyo laboratory. The team were surprised to find some bacteria in the stonefly gut were not present on the glacier surface. Not only was the bacteria absent from the surface of the Tyndall Glacier, but they were also distinct from bacteria catalogued in other glacier environments, indicating a symbiotic relationship between the Patagonian stonefly nymph host and its gut bacteria. The stonefly nymph provides an enriching gut environment and in turn the bacteria aids in the insect’s nutrition and material cycle of the glacier environment.
Insects and animals, including humans, host a variety of microorganisms in their digestive tracts. These microorganisms and other bacteria, called gut flora, help perform a variety of functions critical to the health of their host. For example, humans lack enzymes necessary to break down certain fibers, starches, and sugars. Our gut flora keeps us healthy and enables us to ingest a wide range of foods we would otherwise be unable to digest. Similarly, the stonefly’s gut community enables it to benefit from seemingly nutritionless cryoconite sediments.
According to Takumi Murakami, from Japan’s National Institute of Genetics and principal author of the study, glacier stonefly nymphs and their gut bacteria likely drive the decomposition of organic materials on the glacier. The gut bacteria-invertebrate symbiosis may even be a common phenomenon in glacier ecosystems beyond Patagonia. Understanding the role of high trophic level invertebrates, like the stonefly, and their bacteria in glacier ecosystems is key to understanding the big picture of glacier nutritional networks.
Japanese scientists have compiled a significant body of research on invertebrates and their gut flora, particularly those inhabiting glaciers. In 1984, Japanese researcher Shiro Kohshima documented a novel discovery on a visit to the Yala Glacier in Nepal; a cold-tolerant midge. Later he visited Patagonia to examine the glacier-indigenous insects of the region. Kohshima enlisted collaborators, who in turn brought their students, which has resulted in the present day team of glacier-insect specialists, including Murakami. Their diligence in studying glacier ecosystems has produced a prolific body of published work, helping fill knowledge gaps at the headwaters of organic decomposition.
Further underscoring the importance of the research, Murakami told GlacierHub, “Recent studies suggested that glacier ecosystems are the source of nutrition for downstream soil, river, and ocean ecosystems.” Were it not for the bacteria inhabiting the gut of the Patagonian Dragon, the organic matter would not be processed, and thus would not contribute to the glacier or downstream ecosystems.
Murakami adds, “Since glacier environments are susceptible to climate change, it is essential to accumulate the knowledge on the current glacier ecosystems for future studies, otherwise we will lose the opportunity.” Murakami’s concern is not unfounded. In the U.S., the stonefly is the poster child of understudied species that are quickly disappearing due to rapidly changing habitats. Petitions listing two species of stonefly under the Endangered Species Act are under consideration.
From Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: “Muztagh Ata is located to the east of Pamir and in the north of the Tibetan Plateau. The ice core data provide important information for atmospheric circulation and climate change in Asia. Moreover, the climate in Muztagh Ata is very sensitive to solar warming mechanisms because it has a large snow cover in the region, resulting in important impacts on the hydrological cycle of the continent by enhancing glacier melt.”
Read more about black carbon in northern Tibet here.
Microscopic Crustaceans at Risk in Patagonian Fjords
From Progress in Oceanography: “Glacial retreat at high latitudes has increased significantly in recent decades associated with global warming. Along Chile’s Patagonian fjords, this has promoted increases in freshwater discharge, vertical stratification, and the input of organic and inorganic particles to fjords.”
Read more about the effects of glacial retreat on Patagonian crustaceans here.
Melting Greenland Ice Sheet Contributes to Sea Level Rise
From The Cryosphere: “Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated since the early 2000s, compared to the 1970s and 1980s, and could contribute 0.45–0.82m of sea level rise by the end of the 21st century. Recent mass loss has been attributed to both a negative surface mass balance and increased ice discharge from marine-terminating glaciers.”
The GlacierHub News Report is a bi-monthly video news report that features some of our website’s top stories. This week, GlacierHub News is featuring an assessment of the environmental impact of tourism in Tibet, deforestation on Mt. Kenya, cryoacoustics, and the adventures of a Filipino world traveler.
This week’s news report features:
Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Tibet
By: Yang Zhang
Summary: In a paper published earlier this year in the Journal of Mountains, six researchers from the Tibetan Plateau provide science-based suggestions for policymakers to decide where and how ecotourism should be conducted. The construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway in 2006 gave people across the globe access to this cut-off region. By 2017, Tibet was the host of 25.61 million travelers worldwide, a 12-times growth compared to a decade ago. The exponential increase in tourism raises significant concerns about environmental degradation in this fragile ecological hotspot.
Is Deforestation Driving Mt. Kenya’s Glacier Recession?
By: Jade Payne
Summary: Mount Kenya’s glaciers are rapidly receding. A new study published in the American Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering found that forest cover has the highest correlation with Mt. Kenya’s glacier coverage. The study found that the current trend in glacier thinning will continue until the glaciers completely disappear by 2100. In addition, the research found forest cover to be responsible for 75 percent of changes in glacier coverage during the study period, from 1984 to 2017.
Read more about Mt. Kenya’s glacier recession here.
Pioneer Study Sounds Out Iceberg Melting in Norway
By: Sabrina Ho
Summary: Last month, a team of researchers published their work on the intensity, directionality and temporal statistics of underwater noise produced when icebergs melt. The study is a pioneer in the field of cryoacoustics research still in its early stages since existing studies largely focus on larger forms of ice such as glaciers and ice shelves instead of icebergs.
Emerging from Glacier Permafrost: New Purple Bacteria found in Tianshan
From International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology: “A Gram-stain-negative, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain B2T, which can synthesize purple pigments of violacein and dexyoviolacein, was isolated from Tianshan glacier in Xinjiang, China…. Based on genomic relatedness, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, strain B2T […] is considered to represent a novel species.”
Understanding GLOF Dynamics in Arid Andes of Chile
From Natural Hazards: “We study a remarkable GLOF triggered by the failure of a subglacial lake in the Manflas Valley, Arid Andes of Chile, in 1985 providing insights into the lake’s origin, clarifying the failure mechanism and modeling the GLOF event-related dynamics… We show that the failed lake (4 × 106 m3) formed in a low-slope (≤ 10°) area and that extreme (≥ 90th percentile) annual precipitation before the GLOF contributed to the lake filling and probably to the dam collapse.”
Check out more about what scientists have learned from the 1985 GLOF event here.
Exploring the Factors Behind Flow Rates in Greenland’s Exit Glaciers
From Science: “The largest uncertainty in ice sheet models used to predict future sea-level rise originates from our limited understanding of processes at the ice-bed interface… We find that this sliding relation does not apply to the 140 Greenland glaciers that we analyzed.”
Long hikes, cold winds and raging rivers weren’t enough to keep Filipino world traveler Rocco Puno from reaching his destination, Grey Glacier, located in the southern Patagonian ice field.
Puno, the son of a prominent Filipino family, was recently accepted into Harvard’s MBA program and upon hearing the good news quit his job to travel the world. In search of adventure and inspiration for new sustainable development ideas, Puno and his friends flew to South America and took the W trek, Patagonia’s most famous hiking route. It gets its name from the three valleys it cuts through, creating a “w” shape on the map. The hike goes through Torres del Paine National Park, located on the western side of Chilé before reaching Grey Glacier.
Grey Glacier stretches around 350 kilometers and is over 1,200 years old. It took Puno and his friends five days of hiking to finally reach their destination. Puno told GlacierHub that this was one of the most physically demanding challenges of his life, and yet it was truly worth it. “One of the most rewarding parts of the hike was seeing Glacier Grey,” said Puno, who hails from a country without glaciers. “Set to the backdrop of towering snow-capped mountains, we agreed that it was one of the most beautiful things we had ever seen.”
Puno highly recommends the trip to anyone who is willing and able to make the journey, saying his experience was both humbling and inspiring. This Photo Friday, find photos of his glacier adventure.
This Photo Friday, traverse the glaciers of the Chilean Andes with Marcos Cole, a Chilean geographer and mountain guide. Cole, as part of his Glaciers by Bicycle project, is currently traveling by bicycle from the Altiplano region in the north of Chile all the way to Tierra del Fuego in the far south.
The project has three objectives, the first of which is to create a photographic database of Chilean glaciers for future studies on glacial retreat and global change. Second, by traveling by bicycle, Cole hopes to demonstrate the importance of the bicycle in the fight against climate change. Lastly, Cole wants to highlight the importance of glaciers for society and ecosystems through the creation of a documentary of his travels.