Roundup: Thwaites Earthquakes, Peru Glacier Collapse Claims Lives, and an Alaskan Streamflow Study

Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica is Now Causing Earthquakes

Thwaites Glacier is one of Antarctica’s largest contributors to sea level rise from Antarctica.  Its rate of loss has doubled in the past three decades, earning it the moniker “doomsday glacier.” Understanding why it’s retreating so quickly has been a challenge, but glaciologists have recently discovered that the glacier is now generating its own seismic activity when it calves (breaks off icebergs into the ocean), which could help in unlocking the physical keys to this process. The findings were published early this year in Geophysical Research Letters. 

Read the full story on Thwaites earthquakes by Grennan Milliken on GlacierHub here.

Icebergs near the terminus of Thwaites Glacier. If it were to collapse it could raise global sea levels by ten feet. (Source: NASA)

A Catastrophic Glacier Collapse and Mudflow in Salkantay, Peru

On 23 February 2020 an enormous, catastrophic debris flow tore down the Salkantay River in Santa Teresa, Peru. This event has killed at least four people, with a further 13 reported to be missing. Given the magnitude of the flow, this number is probably uncertain. The mudflow was captured in an extraordinary video posted to YouTube.

Read the full post on the Salkantay ice/rock avalanche by Dave Petley on GlacierHub here.

A Classification of Streamflow Patterns Across the Coastal Gulf of Alaska

From the plain language abstract: “Streams provide society with many benefits, but they are being dramatically altered by climate change and human development. The volume of flowing water and the timing of high and low flows are important to monitor because we depend on reliable streamflow for drinking water, hydroelectric power, and healthy fish populations. Organizations that manage water supplies need extensive information on streamflow to make decisions. Yet directly measuring flow is cost‐prohibitive in remote regions like the Gulf of Alaska, which drains freshwater from an area greater than 400,000 km2, roughly the size of California. To overcome these challenges, a series of previous studies developed a tool to predict historical river flows across the entire region. In this study, we used 33 years of those predictions to categorize different types of streams based on the amount, variability, and timing of streamflow throughout the year. We identified 13 unique streamflow patterns among 4,140 coastal streams, reflecting different contributions of rain, snow, and glacial ice. This new catalog of streamflow patterns will allow scientists to assess changes in streamflow over time and their impact to humans and other organisms that depend on freshwater.”

Read the full study published by the American Geophysical Union here.

Source: AGU/Sergeant et al

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Huge Cracks in Antarctic Glacier Foreshadow Epic Calving Event

The European Space Agency (ESA) released a video this past week showing the evolution of two very large and disconcerting cracks in Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier. They have each grown to 20km in length and could shear off a hunk of ice the size of Paris and Manhattan combined.

The Pine Island Glacier—located at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula on the western side of the continent—has always shipped Antarctic ice out to sea at prolific levels, but it’s become famous in recent years due to its ever increasing output. These new cracks are just the latest development in a flurry of epic calving events at Pine Island. These used to occur about every six years but are now happening on an almost yearly basis.

The ESA compiled images of the cracks taken by one of their two polar orbiting Sentinel-1 satellites to make the video. Sentinel-1 is continuously monitoring land, sea, and sea ice conditions with a synthetic-aperture radar instrument that allows it to take pictures in all weather conditions and even at night—a key feature in high latitudes, which experience long periods of darkness in the winter months.  These satellites are part of ESA’s larger Copernicus mission.

Pine Island Glacier feeds into a floating body of ice called an ice shelf. A recent study published in Science Advances this month revealed that these ice shelves, and Pine Island Glacier  in particular, are experiencing accelerated melting from underneath, as a combination of fast moving and buoyant plumes of warm water carve troughs into their bottom surface. This makes the shelves more prone to large calving events and ultimately to shrinkage and retreat.

Pine Island Glacier is made of ice from the West Antarctic ice sheet and flows into the Amundsen Sea. (Credit: NASA)

“Warm water circulation is attacking the undersides of these ice shelves at their most vulnerable points,” said lead earth scientist and lead author of the report, Karen Alley. “These effects matter,” she added. “But exactly how much, we don’t yet know. We need to.”

The large calving event building at Pine Island Glacier also comes at a period of particular concern for melting glaciers around the world. The International Panel on Climate Change released its special report on the state of the Earth’s cryosphere last month in which it predicted continued warming of ocean waters and increasing mass loss of the Antarctic Ice Sheets—of which Pine Island Glacier is a part—throughout the 21st century.

Read More on GlacierHub

Melting Glaciers Threaten Aoraki/Mount Cook, New Zealand

Photo Friday: Nevados de Chillán at Risk of Volcanic Eruption

The Enduring Allure of Glaciers Among Popular Beverage Companies

Roundup: New Museums, Ice Quakes, and Ice Caves

Glaciarium – A New Museum Dedicated to Patagonian Glaciers Opens in Argentina

Arial photo of a large rectangular glacier jagged
Photo of the Perito Moreno Glacier in Los Glaciares National Park, El Calafate, Argentina by Frank Kehren via Flicker

“Designed as an environment that promotes knowledge and awakens the senses, Glaciarium seeks to emotionally move the visitor through noble visual and narrative resources . . .” Read More, here.

 

Calving Glaciers causing “Ice Quakes”

Image of ice falling of a larger glacier into a pool of water
Photo of a small amount of calving on Margerie Glacier in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska by Mark Byzewski via Flicker.

Analysts at the Alaska Earthquake Center discovered that calving glaciers cam cause seismic readings of earthquakes. Read more, here.

 

New International Workshop on Ice Caves published by the National Cave and Karst Research Institute

An image of the silhouette of a man in front of the opening to an ice cave
Under the Glacier by Alison Tomlin via Flicker

“International experts discuss ongoing research efforts and promote global cooperation in ice cave science and management. The 97-page proceedings of the 6th IWIC contain 20 high quality papers and abstracts that cover ice caves and glacier caves eight countries, three continents, and some extraterrestrial bodies. Topics include modeling, measuring, and monitoring of ice and glacier cave processes, microclimates, and cave ice, as well as the effects of climate change.” Read the report here.