Photo Friday: Alpine Animal Ice Mummies

A version of this article by Jørgen Rosvold was published by the NTNU University Museum on January 18, 2017.

Most people associate mummies with the embalmed pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Not all mummies come wrapped in linen though and most are actually created through purely natural means, called natural or spontaneous mummification. Such mummies formes when a dead body lies in an environment that largely slows down its microbiological decomposition. This sometimes happens in very dry, oxygen poor or cold environments, for example within glaciers and ice patches.


Some naturally mummifed small mammals from glaciers and ice patches in Norway (source: Jørgen Rosvold and Per Gätzschmann/NTNU University Museum).
Some naturally mummifed small mammals from glaciers and ice patches in Norway (source: Jørgen Rosvold and Per Gätzschmann/NTNU University Museum).


Frozen human and animal mummies have melted out of the ice all over the world. Even in tropical areas, like central Africa and South-East Asia, a range of mummified birds and mammals have been recorded at high altitudes. One of the most famous is that of a leopard carcass found on a glacier at the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro in 1926, which is supposed to have inspired Hemingway’s “The snows of Kilimanjaro”. Another leopard mummy was likewise found in glacier ice on Mt. Kenya in 1997 and was radiocarbon dated to have died about 900 years ago. Most finds of animal ice mummies have, however, been made in the northern parts of the world where a larger number of potential sites have been systematically searched, like Scandinavia and North America. In warm years, with lots of glacial melting, certain ice patches and glaciers are even littered with numerous small bird and rodent mummies.


Mummified leopard found on Mt. Kilimanjaro (source: Jørgen Rosvold and Per Gätzschmann/NTNU University Museum).
Mummified leopard found on Mt. Kilimanjaro (source: Photo courtesy of Jørgen Rosvold).


How did all of these animals get up on the ice to get mummified? Some of the mummies that we find are of animals that naturally visit such places. Others could have been deposited by predators as a food cache for later. However, a large number of them are not of species that we would normally expect to find on high alpine ice, like many of the rodents and tropical species like the leopard.


A collection of mummified birds collected from alpine ice patches in central Norway and in Yukon, Canada (source: Jørgen Rosvold).
A collection of mummified birds collected from alpine ice patches in central Norway and in Yukon, Canada (source: Jørgen Rosvold).


In Grasshopper Glacier in Montana swarms of grasshopper mummies have even been found entombed in the ice. Some of these finds are likely from animals that died while migrating across mountains or after being carried up by strong updrafts. Others are more cryptic and could be an indication of unknown behaviors that should be studied in more detail.


A mummified chamois found on a glacier in Switzerland (source: Bündner Naturmuseum)
A mummified chamois found on a glacier in Switzerland (source: Bündner Naturmuseum).


These animal ice mummies are usually extraordinary well preserved, even for ice patch finds, and in line with the famous permafrost finds of mummified Ice Age mammals. The alpine ice mummies vary greatly in age from less than hundred to several thousands of years old. While not as old as the Ice Age permafrost finds, they are usually much more frequent within local areas. They thus provide unique information about natural history that one rarely can find in other sites, and could potentially shed light on the evolution of certain pathogens and parasites.


A recently melted out lemming mummy from a Norwegian ice patch (source: Tord Bretten/ SNO).
A recently melted out lemming mummy from a Norwegian ice patch (source: Tord Bretten/ SNO).

Identifying the Peregrine Falcons on Alaska’s Coast

A new study sheds light on the Peregrine Falcons which populated an area in Alaska after retreating glaciers opened it to colonization. Though earlier researchers believed that this new habitat was filled by the subspecies from nearby coastal areas, the researchers found an inland subspecies in this area.

Icy Bay, the study site, was entirely glaciated as recently as 1887. Since then, glacier fronts in the area have retreated, though a glacier still meets the water in one part of the bay. During this period, rocky outcrops and cliffs overlooking open ocean were exposed, creating suitable nesting habitat for Peregrines.

There are three subspecies of Peregrine Falcons that live in the United States, the American, the Arctic, and Peale’s. All of these are found in Alaska. They are just a fraction of the 19 subspecies that are found worldwide. Previous work had assumed that the distribution in Alaska corresponded tightly to habitat types, with the Arctic subspecies found in the far north of the state, a second subspecies inland, and a coastal subspecies near the Gulf of Alaska to the south.

Previous Distribution Peregrine
Map of distribution of Peregrine Falcon subspecies, as understood previously. Source: Journal of Raptor Research.

As the authors write, some reports described the classification of the Peregrine Falcons of the Lost Coast, the area between the western and eastern panhandles of Alaska, as unclear. The new study provided a definite answer for the particular research site, Icy Bay.

Authors Stephen Lewis and Michelle Kissling work in the area did not begin not with Peregrines. They first focused on the Kittlitz’s Murrelet as the Fish and Wildlife Service considered whether it should be categorized as an endangered species. This status could allow for action to be taken to protect the bird’s habitat. Though the murrelet was later deemed ineligible, the project allowed additional scientific work on other bird species as well. Taking advantage of this possibility, the researchers gathered data on Peregrines and Bald Eagles.

To clarify the subspecies to which Icy Bay Peregrines belonged, the authors needed to capture them in order to take close measurements, and to attach tracers that would allow them to track migratory behavior. This work required them to face challenging conditions. In an email, Lewis wrote that Icy Bay, has “dynamic,” or changing, ice conditions.  He stated, “depending on the weather conditions, winds, and tide, the ice in the bay could be contracted deep into the fjords or spread throughout the entire bay. That could change on a daily basis or even within a day.” The authors navigated icy waters in 14-foot inflatable skiffs to reach Peregrine nests on shore.

Glacier Bay Ice Low Tide
Sea ice blocks exposed by falling tide in Icy Bay. Courtesy of Margaret Olson/Flickr. (The crumbly mourrain material of the cliffs in the background makes poor nesting ground, but exposed rock in other parts is quickly capitalized upon by nesting Peregrines, according to Lewis.)

Once ashore, protocols on animal capture and release were followed to ensure the birds’ safety. The researchers weighed and measured the captured birds, which included 6 adults and hatchlings, as well as noting their coloration of the captured birds. GPS tracking devices were also attached.

In determining the subspecies of the birds, researchers looked to size. They knew that the coastal subspecies, which travels long distances over open ocean in search of the seabirds on which it feeds, was larger than the other two, which capture smaller prey and travel shorter distances. But they found that size characteristics varied too much within the subspecies to serve as a clear delineator. It was coloration–specific details of stripes on the throat—which provided the first strong clue that the captured birds were of the American, or anatum, subspecies, rather than the expected Peale’s subspecies.

A Peregrine Falcon at a raptor recovery center in Sitka, Alaska. Courtesy of Harvey Barrison/Flickr.

Strong confirmatory evidence of this classification was found through the tracking devices. The devices provided data on the long-distance migration of the birds. Radio tags identified the birds as having wintered in southern Mexico and as far south as Uruguay (some birds managed to lose their tags, including one who fell off the radar over Brazil). The American Peregrine is understood to be a much greater traveler than Peale’s, supporting the classification of the Icy Bay Peregrines as American.

The finding contradicted the widely-held view of distribution of Peregrine subspecies in Alaska, which indicated that Peregrines of the Peale’s subspecies would be the most likely inhabitants of Icy Bay. The previous belief also represented a theory that the existing coastal species would move in to occupy new coastal areas opened by receding glaciers. In finding that the Icy Bay Peregrines were of the American, rather than the Peale’s subspecies, the study provides one case study that indicates the complexity of the movement of birds and other animals into areas that are exposed as glaciers retreat.




Photo Friday: Happy Shorebird Day

GlacierHub is glad to join the first World Shorebirds Day on September 6, 2014, by showing the diversity of shorebirds that are found near glaciers, including tidewater glaciers and glaciers in mountain lakes. These include classic waders such as the black stilt and the least sandpiper. Other birds also frequent the shores of glacial waters. These come from a number of families: ducks, puffins, gulls, skuas, eagles and penguins.. Examples can be found from several different continents. These birds show the great natural diversity that exists in glacier environments. Their calls are often evocative, as a recent post to GlacierHub noted.

World Shorebirds Day is organized by the Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, based in southeastern Massachusetts. Glacier birders are invited submit their shorebird watching sites to a registry of such sites.

Photo Friday highlights photo essays and collections from areas with glaciers. If you have photos you’d like to share, let us know in the comments, by Twitter @glacierhub or email us at

Least sandpiper, Kenai Mountains , Alaska (Travis/Flickr)
Least sandpiper, Kenai Mountains , Alaska (Travis/Flickr
Horned puffin, Kenai Fjords, Alaska (Brian Henderson/Flickr)
Horned puffin, Kenai Fjords, Alaska (Brian Henderson/Flickr)
Arctic Skua, Iceland (Brian Gratwicke/Flickr)
Arctic Skua, Iceland (Brian Gratwicke/Flickr)
Black stilt, Mt Cook, Southern Alps, New Zealand (Jon Sullivan/Flickr)
Black stilt, Mt Cook, Southern Alps, New Zealand (Jon Sullivan/Flickr)