Video of the Week: Freeski of the Mer de Glace

This Video of the Week takes you for a white-knuckle freeski of the Mer de Glace, France’s largest glacier. Sam Favret’s short film “Ice Call” was a finalist at the New York Wild Film Festival in 2018. Favret first takes us above the Chamonix with a stunning aerial of the Mont Blanc mountains. Audio of glaciers cracking like cannon fire accompanies an impressive panorama as a skier mentally steels himself before dropping in. After a Requiem For a Dream-esque cut of the sights and sounds of a glacier’s interior― the action begins. You’ll find yourself tucking your elbows in as the skier navigates narrow chutes and spins into a light-less glacial cave. Acrobatic inversions, rotations, and icy wall rides are artfully integrated in a free flowing ride as natural as the glacier itself.

You’ll want to ensure your audio is turned up for this:

 

Discover more glacier news at GlacierHub:

Human Interference in the Pacific Northwest & Alaska: Will Wild Salmon Survive?

Glacier Tanks: An Ode to Mount Hood

Irony in Big Piney: On Karen Budd-Falen and the Wind River Glaciers

 

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Glacier Tanks: An Ode to Mount Hood

Glaciers connote feelings of jagged cold, adventure, and size on an order of magnitude the human mind can hardly grasp. Over the years, many brands from Gatorade to mint candy companies have drawn on the positive associations evoked by glaciers to market their products. So when a beer equipment manufacturer set up shop in the shadow of Oregon’s glaciated Mount Hood, the name for their operation was right in front of them.

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Mount Hood, the 11,249-foot “Queen of the Cascades,” with downtown Portland in the foreground (Source: Flickr).

 

Glacier Tanks was established in Portland in 2006, less than 50 miles west of Mount Hood. It is a small, family-owned company with fewer than twenty employees. Staff members sport fleeces with the Glacier Tanks logo, a silhouette of Mount Hood with blue caricatured glaciers. The owners are Portland lifers, although their operation, which produces brewing tanks, has since outgrown its original confines and moved across the river to Vancouver, Washington. They get together with friend-breweries and compete in beer camaraderie like “Brewfit games,” which include events like the cask carry and beer chugging.

GlacierHub caught up with Nick Roelle, the company’s 39-year-old CEO, who is a snowboarder and outdoorsman. He confirmed the Glacier Tanks’ namesake is “an ode to Mount Hood” and to his youth, which he spent exploring glaciers in Alaska.

Former Glacier Tanks employee, Matt Fields, boulders at Alaska’s Byron Glacier trailhead (Source: Matt Fields).

 

Twelve named glaciers and snowfields flank Mount Hood, which is a slumbering volcano and Oregon’s tallest peak. Iconic among Portlanders, the mountain is revered for both its beauty and mystique— there is no established path to the top. Its 7,000 feet of glacial cave passages comprise the longest system in the continental U.S.

Portland and the Pacific Northwest are informally recognized as the craft-brew capital of the world. A bit farther east, the Cascade Range casts a rain shadow over a vast, dry, elevated plateau. It is a sun-drenched region, which receives hydration year-round from a healthy mountain snowpack. These are ideal hop-growing conditions, a primary ingredient for making good beer. The region produced 99 percent of U.S. grown hops in 2017.

A barrel converted into an upright fermentor (Source: Instagram).

However, climate change forecasts predict a warmer, drier, less hoppy Pacific Northwest, which is bad news for beer makers. But Glacier Tanks, a company that got its start making rainwater storage tanks, is accustomed to adapting quickly. They also create equipment for brewing kombucha, coffee, wine, and tool custom products specialized for other niche productions. Their clients include the Boston Beer Company (the maker of Samuel Adams), Backwoods Brewing, and Humm Kombucha.

In 2015, some of the most recognizable names in American beer-making signed on to a climate declaration for greater integration of sustainability practices into their brewing. The declaration reads: “Warmer temperatures and extreme weather events are harming the production of hops, a critical ingredient of beer that grows primarily in the Pacific Northwest. Rising demand and lower yields have driven the price of hops up by more than 250 percent over the past decade. Clean water resources, another key ingredient, are also becoming scarcer in the West as a result of climate-related droughts and reduced snowpack.”

Glacier Tanks employees with Mount Hood’s iconic silhouette (Source: Instagram).

Levi Drake, the Glacier Tanks operations manager, studied stream ecology at the University of Illinois. He is aware of the climate prediction for their hop-growing region. According to Drake, who is also responsible for Glacier Tanks’ research and design, there is nothing glacial about the pace of the company’s adaptability. They are currently in the process of redesigning kettles for better heat retention and efficiency. The pursuit of sustainable systems is a theme of the Portland region, and will continue to drive brewery innovation, especially in the Pacific Northwest.

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Photo Friday: Glaciers in the Canton of Valais

The canton of Valais in Switzerland features ten of the 12 highest summits in the Alps. Alpine photographer Fiona Bunn’s 2019 calendar includes many of these 4,000-meter peaks found in Valais. Her images, all captured this past year, include the largest glacier in the Alps. The Aletsch is situated in the Bernese Alps and is 23 kilometers long.

The Aletsch Glacier, known in German as Grosser Aletschgletscher (Source: Fiona Bunn).

 

Fifty kilometers south, is the Grenz glacier, which flows between the Monte Rosa and Lyskamm mountains of the Pennine Alps.

Monte Rosa at 4,634 meters (Source: Fiona Bunn).

 

The 4,357 meter Dent Blanche at dawn (Source: Fiona Bunn).

 

Bunn recently reflected on changing mountain landscapes in a guest post to GlacierHub: “My hope is that new John Muirs and Ansel Adams will arise, who encourage aesthetic appreciation and conservation of these sacred places. We may not be able to reverse a climate catastrophe, but we can be aware of those documenting change and supportive of the indigenous communities with creative solutions and investment.”

Indigenous Valais black-nosed sheep (Source: Fiona Bunn).

 

Lyskamm at 4527 meters and Grenz Glacier (Source: Fiona Bunn).

 

There is a special discount of 10 percent for GlacierHub readers. The alpine calendar is printed on premium photo paper, size 30 x 20 cms (A4). Price £9.99 P&P UK £5, ROW £7. To receive the special discount order via fibunnphotos@gmail.com. Payment either by Paypal or invoicing via direct transfer or check. All images copyright Fi Photos.

Fiona Bunn is a British and Swiss alpine photographer. For more of Fiona Bunn’s work, visit her website at www.fiphotos.org.

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What the Yak Herders of Northern Bhutan Are Saying About Global Warming

A recent study in the high-altitude Kingdom of Bhutan indicates climate change may have its yak herding population on thin ice. Owing to its topography, the Himalaya provides for a variety of climatic conditions and human populations to study. This diversity makes indigenous peoples who inhabit those areas uniquely qualified to provide traditional knowledge, empirical evidence, and perspective.

This new study, published in Mountain Research and Development, seeks to evaluate vulnerabilities of the yak herding livelihood; no fancy instruments, no ice cores required, just people talking to people who have seen a place change over a long period of time.

New study shows how Yak herders from Bhutan perceive how climate change will impact their culture and livelihoods (Source: Deanne June Scanlan/Twitter).

One hundred village elders, averaging 60 years of age, were chosen as the survey subjects. The researchers from Bhutan’s Ministry of Agriculture and Forests set out on foot in late summer 2017 to gauge the elders’ awareness of environmental changes as well as their perceptions of climate change signals, weather patterns, water and vegetation changes, and economic impacts. The elders offered keen, spatio-temporal perspectives for the researchers who aimed to measure perceptible changes in climate.

Study sites in major yak herding communities were selected in the districts of Thimphu, Bumthang, Paro, and Wangdue. The elders were interviewed in a two-stage sample, and results of the questionnaire were averaged across the population. Survey questions were pretested and framed as closed-ended with three possible responses: “agree,” “disagree,” and “neither.” The conclusions drawn from the results provide a snapshot of a corner of the world at a tipping point.

The yak herding elders’ observed warming over the past 15 years concurs with climate-research data. Data, often measured from a distance and at brief moments in time, can lack salience when presented alone. But when compared next to the testimony of observant, indigenous people, like the yak herders, the data carries greater weight and texture.

The elders observed the increase in temperature, glacial retreat, and an ascension of the snow line. They noted that weather events like flash flooding have become increasingly unpredictable and severe. A majority of respondents said that the frequency of landslides has also increased, though they were divided on the increase of glacial lake outburst floods, a catastrophic consequence of receding glaciers.

Yak foraging the pristine Lhotse Moraine (Source: Flickr)

The herders have observed changes not only in the weather and the natural environment, but also in the health of the animals on which their livelihoods are centered. The yak themselves are sensitive to warm temperatures— illness and discomfort have increased as a result. The elders’ responses showed the researchers that the declining health of the yak and a shift in timing of the migration have made herding more difficult.

Ruijun Long, a yak expert and ecological and pastoral specialist at the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), told GlacierHub that due to warming and glacial meltwater availability, the yak herders can remain on the summer pastures longer than before.

But a warmer, longer summer of grazing doesn’t necessarily translate to happier yaks.

With thick black hair, yaks are well adapted to the cold temperatures of the high Himalaya. Warmer temperatures cause physiological stress in yaks and general health decline. Their grazing spaces have also been encroached upon thanks to the upslope proliferation of warm-climate plants like the rhododendron. With less grass available, yak milk production has suffered. To make matters worse, predators like the snow leopard have been forced into bolder descents due to their melting habitat.

Transhumant migration has become difficult for yak with rising temperatures (Source: Ian Cochrane/Twitter).

Though yak herders are few in number, herding is the lifeblood for a majority of inhabitants in Bhutan’s high Himalaya. To provide additional income for the yak herders, in 2004 the government gave them explicit collection rights to harvest cordyceps, a valued element in traditional Chinese medicine.

According to Tashi Dorji, a senior ecosystems specialist and Bhutan’s “Godfather of Conservation,” the fungi are complicit in luring yak herders away from yak herding. Dorji told GlacierHub “With good market price, the income from this high value commodity has encouraged yak herders to invest in alternative livelihood in downstream-away from yak farming.” Though now the cordyceps themselves are in doubt due to the changing climate.

A cordyceps, or “caterpillar fungus,” emerges from a larva (Source: Jason Hollinger/Flickr).

Dorji cited another pressure forcing rapid transformation of yak herding in  Bhutan: education. While primary schools are common in yak herding villages, young farmers are forced to migrate downstream for higher education. Dorji told GlacierHub, “This already distances younger generation of herders from their landscape and their traditional farming knowledge. Coupled with inherent difficulties and lack of socio-economic development amenities in those landscapes, young herders are less attracted to yak farming.”

The researchers offered a reduction in herd size as a potential adaptation strategy for the yak herders. A smaller herd equates to reduced income, less security and more hardship. While harvesting prized cordyceps is offsetting losses in yak productivity in the interim, a long-term strategy will likely need to include alternate economic opportunities.

As temperatures advance, the hardships will grow. Hardly a country in the world has contributed less atmospheric emissions than Bhutan. And yet it is populations like the yak herders who suffer from climate change first, and most. External forcings like globalization increases might lure yak herders into exploring other ways of subsistence. As northern Bhutan becomes increasingly connected to the world and the yak herding livelihood continues to be threatened, their way of life will remain tenuous.

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