Roundup: “At Glacier’s End,” Arctic Seabirds Adapt, and Ice Stream Formation

At Glacier’s End: Protecting Glacial Rivers in Iceland

“Page after page of curving colorful rivers delight the eye in At Glacier’s End, a recently published book about Iceland’s glacial river systems. The images that lie behind its cover were created by Chris Burkard, a photographer and explorer, and the more than 8,000 words that tell their story were penned by Matt McDonald, a storyteller and traveller.”

“Our main goal with the book was to advocate for Iceland’s national parks and to try to create a voice for them from a visual perspective,” Burkard said in an interview with GlacierHub.  “In Iceland, it’s really surprising, many politicians who are the decision-makers haven’t had a chance to actually see [these places] because they are far away and really hard to access.”

Read the full story by GlacierHub writer Elza Bouhassira here.

Source: Chris Burkard

Seabirds Find New Ways to Forage in a Changing Arctic

“On Arctic landmasses, valley glaciers––formally known as tidewater glaciers––run all the way to the ocean, where cloudy plumes from their discharge create the perfect foraging habitat for seabirds. Researchers found some birds are reliant upon the turbid, subglacial freshwater discharge, which breaks apart icebergs and forms a column of freshwater foraging ground at the glacier’s edge, while others prefer to forage near the broken sea ice where water is less turbid…In 2019, Bungo Nishizawa and associates published a study in the ICES Journal of Marine Science that investigated the effects of subglacial meltwater on two assemblages of seabirds in northwestern Greenland.”

Read the full story by GlacierHub writer Audrey Ramming here.

Source: Françoise Amélineau

A First-ever Look at Ice Stream Formation

In this week’s Video of the Week, the world gets its first-ever look at ice stream formation. The video, which was published on the American Geophysical Union’s (AGU) YouTube channel on December 17, tracks the rapid movement of the Vavilov Ice Cap, in the high Russian Arctic, from summer 2015 to summer 2018. In the video the glacier’s speed is color-coded by meters per day of movement in what scientists believe is the first documented transition of a glacial surge to a longer-lasting flow known as an ice stream.

Read the full story by GlacierHub senior editor Peter Deneen here.

Video of the Week: A First-ever Look at Ice Stream Formation

In this week’s Video of the Week, the world gets its first-ever look at ice stream formation. The video, which was published on the American Geophysical Union’s (AGU) YouTube channel on December 17, tracks the rapid movement of the Vavilov Ice Cap, in the high Russian Arctic, from summer 2015 to summer 2018.

In the video the glacier’s speed is color-coded by meters per day of movement in what scientists believe is the first documented transition of a glacial surge to a longer-lasting flow known as an ice stream.

“Ice streams and glacial surges were believed to be separate phenomena driven by different mechanisms,” the AGU wrote in the caption. “But if the authors of the new study are correct, glacial surges could instead be an early stage of an ice stream.”

NASA documented the surge in an April 2019 story “A Surprising Surge at Vavilov Ice Cap.” Glaciologists took notice of the glacier’s abberant behavior in 2013, when it suddenly sprang forward, an unusual development for a cold-based glacier, which tend to move slowly. The finding startled glaciologists because if the Vavilov Ice Cap’s outlet glacier can suddenly transition from stable ice––to ice stream––then so can other ice caps, which would upend sea level rise predictions globally.

“The fact that an apparently stable, cold-based glacier suddenly went from moving 20 meters per year to 20 meters per day was extremely unusual, perhaps unprecedented,” University of Colorado Boulder glaciologist Michael Willis told NASA in April 2019. “The numbers here are simply nuts. Before this happened, as far as I knew, cold-based glaciers simply didn’t do that…couldn’t do that.”

Whyjay Zheng is a Ph.D. candidate at Cornell University and the lead author of the new study. “If you look at the satellite images, it seems like the entire west wing of the ice cap is just dumping into the sea,” Zheng said. “No one has ever seen this before.”

Read More on GlacierHub here:

At Glacier’s End: Protecting Glacial Rivers in Iceland

Photo Friday: Thwaites Glacier Bore Hole Drilled

New Insights into Bergfilm and Contemporary Environmentalism

Roundup: The Hydropower Potential In Glacier Retreat, A Glacier Children’s Book, and How Glaciers Affect Kyrgyz Pasture Selection

Large Hydropower and Water-storage Potential in Future Glacier-free Basins

A major study published in Nature takes a global look at the hydropower potential of deglacierized water basins. As glaciers retreat in high mountain areas, they sometimes expose areas which can be used as hydropower reservoirs by holding snowmelt and runoff from rain. From the abstract:

“Climate change is causing widespread glacier retreat, and much attention is devoted to negative impacts such as diminishing water resources, shifts in runoff seasonality, and increases in cryosphere-related hazards. Here we focus on a different aspect, and explore the water-storage and hydropower potential of areas that are expected to become ice-free during the course of this century…Although local impacts would need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis, the results indicate that deglacierizing basins could make important contributions to national energy supplies in several countries, particularly in High Mountain Asia.”

Read the study here.

The O’Shaughnessy Dam in California’s deglacierized Hetch Hetchy Valley is a source of hydropower and water for the city of San Francisco (Source: King of Hearts/WikiCommons).

A Glacial Erratic is the Star of a New Children’s Book

A children’s book entitled Old Rock (Is Not Boring), written an illustrated by Deb Pilutti, features rocks and glaciers. From a review of Old Rock (Is Not Boring):

“Old Rock sits “in the same spot, at the edge of a clearing in the middle of a pine forest” every day, and the other forest residents insist the rock must be bored. After Hummingbird, Spotted Beetle, and Tall Pine regale Old Rock with tales of their adventures, Old Rock relays a rich history in which he was shot from a volcano, hid dinosaurs from predators, survived an ice age, traveled frozen in a glacier, and rolled onto plains populated with mastodons.”

Old Rock (is not boring) is a children’s book written and illustrated by Deb Pilutti (Source: Deb Pilutti/Twitter)

Kyrgyz Herders Follow Glacial Melt, Study Finds

Kyrgyz herders in Central Asia use proximity to glaciers as a criteria for selecting which kinds of pasture are best for their flocks, according to a recent study in the journal Ecology and Society. From the abstract:

“Consensus on the state of rangelands is often elusive. This is especially true in the primarily agropastoral former Soviet republic of Kyrgyzstan. Some argue Kyrgyz rangeland is being rapidly degraded by overgrazing. However, poor data and climatic changes confound this assessment. Thus there is contention amongst researchers, state officials, and local agropastoralists about the etiology and appropriate degree of concern regarding changes in flora and landscape patterns. This lack of consensus makes pasture management difficult for local elected managers. In this study, we use audiovisual primes, structured interview tasks, and consensus analysis to examine the degree of agreement among local agropastoralists of Naryn oblast about (a) the nature of several degradation-ambiguous plant and landscape types found in the area, and (b) indicators of “good” pasture. We find relatively little interparticipant agreement on high-resolution details, but a pattern of consensus regarding (i) a refutation of select species as indicators of degradation, as well as (ii) apparent shared heuristics for determining what makes for good, versus bad, pasture. We consider socio-historical and cognitive drivers of these patterns, and close with a discussion of implications for management.

Read the full study here.

High summer pasture in Naryn oblast (Source: Levine et al/Ecology and Society).

Read More on GlacierHub:

Indigenous Activist Among Those Killed In Iran’s Takedown of Civilian Airliner

What the Yak Herders of Northern Bhutan Are Saying About Global Warming

Mongolia’s Cashmere Goats Graze a Precarious Steppe

Photo Friday: Thwaites Glacier Bore Hole Drilled

If there is a ‘doomsday glacier‘ Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica is it. The massive glacier is one of the fastest melting glaciers in the world and has the potential to destabilize the entire West Antarctic ice sheet––a scenario which would raise global sea levels an average of ten feet.

A team of scientists led by David Holland and Keith Nicholls––from the International Thwaites Glacier Collaboration Project (ITGC)––are using hot water to drill holes through the glacier. On January 8 the first bore hole was drilled, opening a 590 meter access point directly to the bottom of the glacier.

The goal of the project––MELT––is to better understand how the warm water is melting the glacier at the grounding line. Ultimately, researchers hope the data gleaned will allow the glacier’s potential sea-level contribution to be more accurately predicted.

On Twitter, the handle @HotWaterOnIce is actively providing updates from Thwaites’ surface, providing an on-ice view of the depth and breadth of the research taking place.

Read More on GlacierHub:

New Insights into Bergfilm and Contemporary Environmentalism

Video of the Week: Mexico’s Popocatépetl Volcano Explodes

Indigenous Activist Among Those Killed In Iran’s Takedown of Civilian Airliner

Roundup: Iceland Tourism Unconcerned by Warming, The World’s Water Towers, Alpinism Recognized by UNESCO

Glacier Tour Operators in Iceland Aren’t Worried About Climate Change

A study of small glacier tourism operators in Iceland published in the International Journal of Biometeorology found that small and medium-scale tour operators aren’t too worried about the threat of glacier retreat and climate change to their business. From the abstract:

“The interaction of operator’s attributes of agency such as firsthand experiences, risk perceptions, and abilities to self-organize, with structural elements of the glacier destination system such as economic rationales and hazard reduction institutions, has shaped and consolidated operators’ adaptation processes in the form of a wait-and-see strategy combined with ad hoc reactive adaptation measures and postponed or prevented proactive long-term adaptation strategies.”

Read the study here.

Vatnajökull National Park in southeast Iceland (Source: Creative Commons)

Importance and Vulnerability of the World’s Water Towers

A major overview of mountains and global water supply by Walter Immerzeel was published in Nature magazine on December 9. From the abstract:

“Mountains are the water towers of the world, supplying a substantial part of both natural and anthropogenic water demands. They are highly sensitive and prone to climate change, yet their importance and vulnerability have not been quantified at the global scale. Here we present a global water tower index, which ranks all water towers in terms of their water-supplying role and the downstream dependence of ecosystems and society.”

Read the study here.

The WTI, the population in WTUs and their downstream basins (Source: Immerzeel/Nature).

UNESCO Declares Alpinism An Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

Alpinists Scott Schoettgen and Orion Peck summit Mount Shasta in California in April 2019 (Image: Aaron Barnhart).

UNESCO just declared alpinism, also known as Western-style mountain climbing––the art of climbing up summits and walls in high mountains––as part of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. From UNESCO on the sport:

“Alpinism is a traditional, physical practice characterized by a shared culture made up of knowledge of the high-mountain environment, the history of the practice and associated values, and specific skills. Knowledge about the natural environment, changing weather conditions, and natural hazards is also essential. Alpinism is also based on aesthetic aspects: alpinists strive for elegant climbing motions, contemplation of the landscape, and harmony with the natural environment. The practice mobilizes ethical principles based on each individual’s commitment, such as leaving no lasting traces behind, and assuming the duty to provide assistance among practitioners.”

Alpinism is recognized by the UNESCO as an art :

  • of climbing mountain summits and faces by one’s own physical, technical and intellectual strengths;
  • of challenging one’s own capabilities and expertise while negotiating natural, non-artificial obstacles;
  • of evaluating and assuming measured risks;
  • of self-managing, self-responsibility and solidarity; and
  • of respecting other people and natural sites.

Read the rest of the UNESCO entry here. Read more in the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation’s press release.

Read More on GlacierHub:

‘Most Ice on Earth is Very Close to Melting Conditions’

Video of the Week: Smoke and Ash Choke Tasman Glacier in New Zealand

Glaciers in the Olympic Mountains Could Vanish by End of This Century

Video of the Week: Smoke and Ash Choke Tasman Glacier in New Zealand

Australia is experiencing the worst fire season in modern times. Millions of hectares of forest and thousands of homes have burned and more than 20 people have perished. The environmental impacts are yet to be tabulated, but experts say one billion animals may have died on the continent, which already has the highest extinction rate in the world.

While no glaciers remain on Australia, the impacts of the fires on glaciers more than 1,000 miles away are already being felt. This week’s Video of the Week, showing the impact of Australia’s bushfires on New Zealand’s Tasman Glacier, is one of the most viral glacier videos ever. The footage was viewed 653,000 times on Twitter alone at the time of publication––just one week after it was shared.

Video Credit: Andy Hoare

Andy Hoare, who has been a guide on the Tasman Glacier for the past three years and who shot the footage on New Year’s Day 2020, said the group have never seen anything like it. “I didn’t expect the smoke to get as bad as it did,” Hoare told GlacierHub. “It felt quite depressing standing there, especially because you can already the massive retreat that our glaciers have already experienced. I think it felt quite symbolic of what’s happening to our environment around the world.”

The 21-second clip shows tourists milling about on the ice. Hoare’s mother, Twitter user @MissRoho, shared the video with the caption “This the view from the top of the Tasman Glacier NZ today––whole South island experiencing bushfire clouds. We can actually smell the burning here in Christchurch. Thinking of you guys.”

The long term impacts of the sooty fallout darkening the surface of New Zealand’s glaciers remains to be seen. But if the Amazon forest fires are any analog, New Zealand’s glaciers can be expected to melt significantly faster. Fires in the Amazon in 2010 caused a 4.5 percent increase in water runoff from Zongo Glacier in Bolivia alone.

Melt rate is critical because where there are glaciers there are people––and biodiversity––reliant upon the slow release of water from glacial reservoirs. Nearly two billion people depend on runoff from Himalayan glaciers in southeast Asia and some towns in Peru receive as much as 85 percent of their drinking water from glaciers during times of drought. Too much melt too fast without replenishment is bad for people, biodiversity, and glaciers.

Hoare did not expect the video to take off the way it did. “I’m glad the footage could at least in a small way make people aware of how the fires affected our glaciers and also maybe think about the connection between the fires, emissions, coal mining, and how it effects the planet.”

Read More on GlacierHub:

Photo Friday: Bushfires in Australia Continue to Devastate New Zealand Glaciers

Amazon Fires Quickening Glacier Melting in Andes

Last Remaining Glaciers in the Pacific Will Soon Melt Away

Roundup: The Glacier Compensation Effect, Amazon Fires Melt Andean Glaciers, and Australia’s Bushfires Accelerate Melt in New Zealand

Characterizing the Relation Between Interannual Streamflow Variability and Glacier Cover

A new study confirmed the theory that streamflow variability is dependent on relative glacier cover. From the abstract: “Meltwater from glaciers is not only a stable source of water but also affects downstream streamflow dynamics. One of these dynamics is the interannual variability of streamflow. Glaciers can moderate streamflow variability because the runoff in the glacierized part, driven by temperature, correlates negatively with the runoff in the non‐glacierized part of a catchment, driven by precipitation, thereby counterbalancing each other. This is also called the glacier compensation effect (GCE), and the effect is assumed to depend on relative glacier cover. Previous studies found a convex relationship between streamflow variability and glacier cover of different glacierized catchments, with lowest streamflow variability at a certain optimum glacier cover. In this study, we aim to revisit these previously found curves to find out if a universal relationship between interannual streamflow variability and glacier cover exists, which could potentially be used in a space‐for‐time substitution analysis.”

Read the study here.

Amazon Fires Quickening Glacier Melting in Andes

In a new paper published November 28, 2019, in the journal Scientific Reports, a team of researchers has outlined how smoke from fires in the Amazon in 2010 made glaciers in the Andes melt more quickly.

Read the story here.

The Zongo glacier is found on the slopes of Huayna Potosi, one of Bolivia’s highest mountains (Source: Ryan Michael Wilson/Shutterstock)

Soot From Australia Bushfires Settles on New Zealand Glaciers

On December 13, GlacierHub published “Bushfires in Australia Blanket New Zealand Glaciers in Soot.” Since then, the fires in Australia have continued to grow and their fallout is increasingly darkening the surface of glaciers in New Zealand. Media outlets including The New York Times, Washington Post, CNN, and The Guardian, among others, are reporting on the tragedy indirectly befalling New Zealand’s glaciers.

Read the story here.

On January 1, 2020, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired a natural-color image (above) of thick smoke blanketing southeastern Australia along the border of Victoria and New South Wales (Source: NASA).

Read More on GlacierHub:

Kerguelen Island Glacier Retreat Expands Lake District

Photo Friday: Glaciers Smile Down on Electric Ferries

Crowded Backcountry Ski Slopes Increase Risk of Skiers Endangering Each Other

Roundup: Iceberg-Tsunami Dynamics, Backcountry Avalanche Risk Rises, and Cruikshank Receives Prestigious Award

Study Aims to Better Understand Iceberg-Tsunami Dynamics

Iceberg calving can create powerful waves when large chunks of ice fall from glaciers into the ocean. A recent study conducted 66 experiments to better understand the features of iceberg calving to determine iceberg-tsunami strength and parameters.

Read the story by Elza Bouhassira on GlacierHub here.

The pool used by the researchers during the experiments. In the image, a gravity-dominated experiment is being conducted (Source: Figure 2/Heller et al).

Crowded Backcountry Ski Slopes Increase Risk of Skiers Endangering Each Other

Avalanche risk is on the rise as more people enter backcountry alpine terrain. A new study seeking to quantify the risk to multi-party avalanches hopes to raise awareness and provoke discussion.

Read the story by Grennan Milliken on GlacierHub here.

A skier during a run down Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington State. (Credit: National Park Service)

Cruikshank Awarded Polar Knowledge Canada’s 2019 Northern Science Award

From the Polar Knowledge Canada press release: “Polar Knowledge Canada is pleased to announce that the recipient of the 2019 Northern Science Award is Dr. Julie Cruikshank. The award was presented at the ArcticNet Annual Scientific Meeting on December 5, 2019, in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

“Dr. Cruikshank, Professor Emerita of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia, has a long and distinguished record of documenting the oral histories and life stories of Athapaskan and Tlingit elders, and exploring Yukon First Nations’ systems of narrative and knowledge. Her work, built on a foundation of respectful relationships, has helped Yukon First Nations recognize and honour the strengths of their cultural traditions, and has brought new insight into the nature of history and the interplay of different knowledge systems. Yukon Indigenous governments regularly draw on Dr. Cruikshank’s work and her knowledge.”

Read the story published by Polar Knowledge Canada here.

Dr. Julie Cruikshank (Source: University of British Columbia).

Roundup: MELTDOWN Visualizing Climate Change, Foodweb Complexity of High Mountain Lakes, and Melting Swiss Glaciers

MELTDOWN Visualizing Climate Change by Project Pressure

The Horniman Museum in London is hosting “MELTDOWN: Visualizing the Climate Crisis” by Project Pressure, an exhibition which emphasizes the importance of glaciers in a scientific, illustrative and dramatic way.” The show features work from every relevant continent, leading the viewer on a journey in three chapters––The Importance of Glaciers, Current Issues and Meltdown Consequences.”

“Since 2008 the climate change charity Project Pressure has been commissioning world-renowned artists to conduct expeditions to document changes to the world’s vanishing glaciers, the consequences for billions of people, and efforts made to limit melting.” The exhibition runs from 23 November 2019 until 12 January 2020.

In 1963 Lewis glacier ran past the guides’ hut, taken from the series ‘When I Am Laid in Earth’ by Simon Norfolk Lewis Glacier, Kenya 2014 (Source: Simon Norfolk/Project Pressure).

Food Web Complexity of High Mountain Lakes is Largely Affected by Glacial Retreat

From the abstract: “High mountain lakes provide essential ecosystem services and have a high conservation value. Therefore, understanding how glacier retreat will affect their ecological functioning and water quality is crucial. Here, we tested how shallow high mountain lakes having different glacial influences differ in their abiotic main features and food web structure using a multiple ecological indicator approach.”

Read the study here.

Simplified food web network in a high mountain lake showing all the hypothetical directional trophic links (Source: Tiberti et al)

Melting Swiss Glaciers to Fuel Conflicts Over Water

“Switzerland is set to lose an important water reservoir as the glaciers continue to melt, affecting not only the agricultural sector and hydropower production, but also transport on Europe’s main waterways.”

Read the comprehensive story of Swiss glaciers on SwissInfo.ch here.

Switzerland’s Rhône Glacier (Source: WikiCommons).

Read More on GlacierHub:

Last Remaining Glaciers in the Pacific Will Soon Melt Away

IMD Marked with Event at United Nations Headquarters

Photo Friday: A Southern Patagonia Glacier from Space

Photo Friday: A Southern Patagonia Glacier from Space

One undeniable upside of the social media age is the sharing of bird’s eye view content by the inhabitants of the International Space Station. In mid-November, astronaut Christina Koch, who has been in space since March 14 of this year, shared this stunningly serene image of a glacier in southern Patagonia on her personal Twitter account:

Users identified the ice body as Perito Moreno, a 97-square mile glacier in the southern Patagonia ice field. The glacier is one of 48 in the region, which comprises the third largest reservoir of fresh water in the world. Perito Moreno Glacier is named after Argentine’s Francisco Moreno, an explorer in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The nickname ‘Perito’ means ‘expert’ or ‘specialist’.

One month before the photo was captured, Koch and Jessica Meir became the first women to participate in an all-female spacewalk. According to NASA, Koch’s career prior to becoming an Astronaut spanned two general areas: space science instrument development and remote scientific field engineering. Koch has been sharing her experience openly:

On August 27, Koch shared this image of the SpaceX Dragon flying over the Canadian Rockies. Several glaciers are visible on the right side of the photo (Source: Christina Koch/Instagram).

Koch is no stranger to the cryosphere. From her NASA bio: “Koch became a Research Associate in the United States Antarctic Program from 2004 to 2007. This included a year long stay with a winter-over at the Admunsen-Scott South Pole Station and a season at Palmer Station. While in this role, she served as a member of the Firefighting Teams and Ocean and Glacier Search and Rescue Teams…In 2010, Koch returned to remote scientific field work with tours including Palmer Station in Antarctica and multiple winter seasons at Summit Station in Greenland.”

One Twitter user replied to Koch’s image with a ground perspective of the same glacier:

Read More on GlacierHub:

Observing Glacier Calving through Time-Lapse Imagery and Surface Water Waves

Photo Friday: Perito Moreno Glacier

Photo Friday: Ice Collapse at Argentina Glacier

Video of the Week: ICESat-2 Scans Glaciated Volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest

In this week’s Video of the Week, Polar Science Center glaciologist Ben Smith shares results from NASA’s new polar satellite, ICESat-2, which made a pass over two glaciated volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest; Mount Baker and Mount Adams. The satellite, which launched in September 2018, carries a laser altimeter that detects individual photons, allowing scientists to measure the elevation of ice sheets, sea ice, forests and more in unprecedented detail. Smith, who is also a professor at the University of Washington, said it will be a few years before the polar orbiting satellite passes over the region, providing an opportunity to measure the glaciers’ change in surface altitude again.

Read More On GlacierHub:

ICESat-2 Hackweek Tackles the Big Data of Earth’s Glaciers

Photo Friday: Mount Baker Is Letting Off Some Steam

Video of the Week: Take a 360° Tour of Mount Baker

Roundup: AGU 100, The Third Pole, and Why Lake Superior is Rising

Latest Cryosphere Research Presented at AGU Centennial

GlacierHub’s senior editor attended the American Geophysical Union’s 100th meeting––combing the centennial gathering for groundbreaking cryosphere research. AGU 100 hosted more than 27,000 attendees––with an equal number of submitted abstracts. More than 1,000 oral sessions and 8,200 presentations were featured as well as more than 16,000 posters. Nearly two dozen scientific workshops were hosted, 101 town halls, ten tutorials, and five keynotes speeches. The Mountain Research Initiative hosted a synthesis workshop on future mountain climate change from elevation-dependent warming to elevation-dependent climate change, led by Nick Pepin from the University of Portsmouth, with experts from around the world. `

Notable glacier presentations over the course of the week included the possibility of a long subglacial river under the north Greenland ice sheet, a subglacial groundwater table beneath Greenland’s Hiawatha crater, measurements of tidewater glacier melt rates with underwater noise, the deglaciation of the Andes in central Chile, the role of ocean warming in the widespread retreat of Greenland’s marine-terminating glaciers, the geologic signatures of catastrophic glacier detachments, and significant surface melt detected across the Himalayas in synthetic aperture radar times series, among others. In case you missed it, AGU Cryosphere live-tweeted the research on display.

The 100th meeting of the American Geophysical Union was hosted in San Francisco, California December 9-13 (Source: Peter Deneen)

Is There Anything Natural About The Polar?

Is there a basis for calling the Himalayas––or all glaciers––a third pole? This article is one of the very few that explores both the social and scientific basis for answering this question positively. From the abstract: “Are similarities of temperature, snow and ice cover, and (certain) marine mammals sufficient to warrant both polar regions being considered a single object of study or governance? We argue that their treatment as a unit is an invitation to examine the motivations behind the choice to be polar rather than Arctic or Antarctic.”

Read the article here.

The Tibetan Plateau, often called the Third Pole (Source: NASA/WikiCommons).

Why Lake Superior Is Rising and What That Means for the City of Duluth

As a climate threat, sea level rise has been well-documented. However, it’s rising lake levels, linked to the warming climate, that may be threatening the shores of Duluth, Minnesota, a city recognized for its climate-safe attributes and that is being advertised as a safe haven for climate refugees.

Read the story by Audrey Ramming on GlacierHub here.

Time series plot of Lake Superior water levels: When working for NOAA, Gronewold helped develop the Great Lakes Water Level Dashboard as a tool to look at long term water level data in the Great Lakes. Notice the recent rising trend. The red line represents the average water level for the period of record while the blue dots represent the average water level in a given month. (Source: Andrew Gronewold/NOAA)

Read More on GlacierHub:

Photo Friday: Bushfires in Australia Blanket New Zealand Glaciers in Soot

Video of the Week: How do we Keep the Paris Agreement on Track by COP26?

Airport Construction Threatens Andean Environments and Cultural Monuments