Last week the High Mountain Summit, established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), convened in Geneva, Switzerland. WMO, an agency within the United Nations (UN) organized the conference to address changes to high mountain ecosystems as a result of rising global temperatures. WMO released a short video detailing the environmental changes occurring in high mountain regions and the importance of adapting to these changes.
Global climate change is threatening high mountain ecosystems, endangering wildlife and human populations alike. Approximately half of the world’s population relies on freshwater sourced from mountain ecosystems. Although, changes to seasonal runoff threatens this freshwater source. Retreating glaciers and changes to precipitation patterns increase the risk of flooding and avalanches. Flooding, avalanches, and lack of available freshwater impact human health and safety as well as local economies.
The UN General Assembly Resolution on Sustainable Mountain Development recognized the seriousness of threats from changing mountain ecosystems, warning they could have severe effects. The resolution states, “despite the progress that has been made in promoting sustainable development of mountain regions and conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, the prevalence of poverty, food insecurity, social exclusion, environmental degradation and exposure to the risk of disasters is still high.” In fact, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, the population of people living in mountain regions increased between 2000 and 2012 and the number of people in mountain communities in developing countries vulnerable to food insecurity jumped by 30%.
The High Mountain Summit was organized to increase dialogue, connect decision makers, local stakeholders, draw links between policy and science, and create a science-based action plan for addressing changes to high mountain ecosystems. According to the High Mountain Summit website, the main concerns dealt with at the summit included environmental changes in high mountain cryosphere, effects of these changes on both ecosystems and communities downstream, and water resource availability.
The High Mountain Summit came on the heels of the publication of the most recent IPCC report. In September, the IPCC released the “Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate”, which included an entire chapter devoted specifically to high mountain regions. The issue of global temperature changes and their impacts on high mountain ecosystems appears to be a growing concern for both governmental organizations and individual communities. A GlacierHub article published last month addressed effects of the melting Chiatibo Glacier on the nearby village of Bumburet in Pakistan. Situated in the Hindu Kush mountain range, Bumburet has experienced devastating flooding and landslides, threatening the community’s way of life.
Visibility of issues related to changing mountain environments will likely increase as concerns continue to grow. The next conference to look out for will be the UN Climate Change Conference, which is being held at IFEMA-Feria de Madrid in Madrid, Spain from the 2nd to the 13th of December, 2019.
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