Roundup: Himalayan GLOFS, Glacier-Fed Rivers in Peru, and New Zealand’s Southern Alps

Trends in GLOF Risk in the Himalayas

From Nature: “Objectively estimating trends in GLOF frequency is challenging as many lakes form in terrain with limited access, making fieldwork impractical. In the HKKHN, outburst floods from glacier lakes initiated mainly between 4,500 and 5,200 m above sea level and some attenuated rapidly, possibly escaping notice in human settlements several thousand vertical metres below. Reliable reports on 40 GLOFs since 1935 are selective. We mapped these GLOFs, originally compiled by regional initiatives, highlighting 32 cases in the Central and Eastern Himalayas in contrast to the very few cases in the northwestern Hindu Kush–Karakoram (HKK) and Nyainqentanglha Mountains. We speculate that these 40 reports preferentially covered large or destructive cases, which makes the assessment of their frequency problematic. In trying to account for this reporting bias, our objective is to estimate GLOF frequency and its changes from a systematic inventory covering the entire HKKHN.”

GLOFs from the Himalayan glaciers can be damaging to surrounding communities. (Source: Karunakar Rayker/Flickr)

New Project Examines Changes in Peru’s River Systems

From Phys.org: “Remote communities in the Peruvian Andes, as well as communities downstream, depend on the water from melting glaciers and mountain ecosystems to provide them with food and power, and to support industry.

But climate change is increasingly putting that in jeopardy, posing a serious threat to future water resources and having potentially severe implications for the vulnerable populations living in river basins-fed by the glaciers.

Now a major research project is looking to establish the precise effects future changes in the glacial system might pose, and how agencies and the communities themselves can work together to mitigate the potential effects of changing water quantity and quality as the glacier retreat.”

Glaciers are extensive in Peru, and many of the nation’s people depend on glacier-red rivers for basic water needs. (Source: McKay Savage/Flickr)

Climate Change Likely to Impact Glacier-Fed Rivers in New Zealand

From International Journal of Climatology: “Future climate change is likely to alter the amount, seasonality and distribution of water available for economic use downstream of alpine areas, so there is a need to forecast glacier net mass loss when assessing future hydrological change. This issue is of considerable relevance to New Zealand, which relies heavily on hydro power for electricity generation. An important river system is the Waitaki, which contains eight hydro generating stations and has a significant input from seasonal snow and glacier melt. Thus, changes in glacier ice volume and atmospheric circulation have long term implications for energy production. The impacts of climate change on water resources are also critical for the Clutha River. This is New Zealand’s largest river with extensive hydro-electricity and irrigation assets. Third, there are close links between glaciers and the large tourism industry in New Zealand, which along with agriculture, is the major driver of the national economy. All these factors mean that there is growing economic concern as to what may happen in the future.”

New Zealand Southern Alps consist of small and large glaciers that respond differently to climate forces. (Source: CameliaTWU/Flickr)

Read More on GlacierHub:

Last-Chance Tourism Spurs Eco-Conciousness and Climate Change

Blood Falls: Origins and Life in Subglacial Environments

Nevado Ausangate Glaciers, Peru Retreat, and Lake Formation

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