On August 7th, in light of the rapid retreat of glaciers in the Andes, two Peruvian national organizations subscribed to an inter-institutional cooperation agreement to implement a glacier research center in the Peruvian city of Cusco. The agreement between the National Research Institute for Glaciers and Mountain Ecosystems (INAIGEM by its acronym in Spanish), the leading glacier research institution in the country, and Cusco’s San Antonio Abad National University (UNSAAC in Spanish) aims to strengthen the scientific agenda for glaciology-applied research in the southern Andean region of the country.
INAIGEM’s Macro Regional Office of the South will be located in Kayra Estate, a meteorological agricultural experiment station founded in 1956 and managed since then by UNSACC. This office will coordinate research projects all over the southern region of Peru. Thus, INAIGEM will provide technical assistance to regional governments to develop appropriate policies in biodiversity, water resources, food security and glaciers, within the context of climate change.
Benjamin Morales, executive director of INAIGEM, stated during an interview for UNSAAC that for students from the university, the glacier research center will be a learning space where they will be able to investigate with expert researchers. Students from different faculties including geology, geography, biology and other social and environmental sciences will be able to participate in the research projects that the INAIGEM will develop in Cusco in the following months.
During an interview with Glacierhub, Morales highlighted the community approach to conducting research, as the institute is coordinating with regional and local governments, the private sector, and universities in each city of the Southern Andes. As the Peruvian online information portal Inforegion indicates, scientists are currently monitoring two important mountains near Cusco: Mount Ausangate, the fifth-highest mountain in Peru, and Chicón, relevant for its water supply to the Cusco region. Scientists are also monitoring neighboring areas between Cusco and Puno, part of the southern region of Peru on the border of Bolivia. INAIGEM will start a study at the Coropuna glacier in the region of Arequipa, for example. Coropuna, one of the highest mountains in Peru, is facing rapid glacier retreat due to climate change.
Mark Carey, a professor at the University of Oregon, told Glacierhub in an interview that partnerships between different types of institutions can effectively enhance glacier-related work in the Andes and beyond by combining the study of ice and society. They are an effective means of drawing together the natural and social sciences, as well as researchers and local communities, in an equal partnership of exchange and interaction.
Due to the direct relationship between glaciers and society, the partnerships with local communities in the southern Andes allow researchers to understand how glacier retreat is affecting cultural values, agricultural practices and the economy. Moreover, in several regions, local populations understand the changes that are produced by the natural Andean climate variability and have implemented their ancestral knowledge to adapt to those changes. An example of this is the local community of Vilcabamba, located in Cusco, has implemented an agricultural system similar to a terrace that was used by the Incas to increase the amount of cultivatable land available to farmers due to the reduction of water supply from Salkantay glacier, located on the twelfth highest mountain in the country.
It is important to have continuing research on glaciers in the Andes to contribute to the understanding of the future natural changes. In a country that traditionally encouraged the centralization of resources and areas of study in the capital city of Lima, institutes like INAIGEM are now supporting a decentralization process. Unlike most Peruvian national institutions, for example, INAIGEM is headquartered in Huaraz, a mountain city located at the base of the Cordillera Blanca. Furthermore, it has as an objective to promote and strengthen the environmental agenda and technological development in the Peruvian Andes, an area sometimes forgotten by Peruvians.
As Carey told Glacierhub, while the Cordillera Blanca is the most glacierized range in Peru (and in fact the most glacierized range in all of the world’s tropical regions), glaciers in the south of the country have been understudied in the last decades. In Carey’s opinion, the Macro Regional Research Office of the South will widen the glacier research that Peruvians have been conducting in the Cordillera Blanca for more than half a century. In developing countries such as Peru, the effects of glacier retreat greatly impact neighboring areas. For example, when glacier runoff from Cusco-area glaciers declines, it changes the hydroelectric output from the facilities of the Machu Picchu Hydroelectric Station.
Thus, Luis Vicuña, a researcher at the University of Zurich, explained in an interview with Glacierhub that there is a direct relationship between glaciers and society. “A wider understanding of the future of glaciers in our society implies research that involves different types of expertise in order to contribute to the understanding of the natural and physical changes, and also the cultural, political, economic and social changes that will determine the relationship between glaciers and society.”
Multi-stakeholder engagement and collaboration can effectively enhance glacier-related work in the Andes and beyond. The cooperation agreement between INAIGEM and UNSAAC plans to facilitate the articulation of environmental scientific research with policy-making processes that regional governments need to support local communities in adapting to climate change.