Posts Tagged "new Zealand"

A Living Piece of History: An Outdoor Ice Rink in New Zealand

Posted by on Jan 24, 2017 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Sports | 0 comments

A Living Piece of History: An Outdoor Ice Rink in New Zealand

Spread the News:ShareThe remains of an outdoor ice rink near Mount Harper/Mahaanui in New Zealand offer insight into the establishment, use and decline of what may have been the largest outdoor ice rink in the Southern hemisphere. The privately built rink on South Island was a popular social amenity from the 1930s to the 1950s, playing an important role in the development of ice hockey and skating in the country, as detailed in a heritage assessment carried out by Katharine Watson for New Zealand’s Department of Conservation (DOC). A combination of interviews, secondary sources and an archaeological survey were used to inform the history of the rink present in the assessment. Mt. Harper ice rink lies in the lee of the mountain (the side that is sheltered from the prevailing wind) that gives it its name, at the foot of the glacier-clad Southern Alps of New Zealand. It was built in the early 1930s by Wyndham Barker, the son of a minor member of the English gentry who lived in Canterbury and learned to ice skate while studying in Europe, as explained in the assessment. The rinks no longer contain any ice and some now contain vegetation, but the bunds (earth mounds) surrounding the ice rinks can still be seen. Many of the original buildings, such as the ticket office, toilet block, skate shed, a hut built to house the Barker’s cow, Sissy, and the Barker’s house are still standing. The rink was first built in the summer of 1931-1932 and was fed by water from a nearby stream. However, its original location was too exposed to the nor’westers (strong north-westerly winds that are characteristic of Canterbury in New Zealand), which rippled the ice. Barker subsequently moved the rink closer to Mt. Harper, building the rink by allowing controlled layers of ice to build up over many nights. The rink’s first major public season took place in the winter of 1934. A hydropower scheme was also installed in 1938 to power lights for skating at night, while allowing water to be sluiced onto the ice if necessary. “The whole landscape is really legible today, which is one of the things that makes it such a great place,” Watson explained to GlacierHub.  “These kinds of sites are very important records of the myriad ways in which human societies have used, interacted with, and taken advantage of seasonal ice over time,” added Rebecca Woods, a professor of the history of technology at the University of Toronto. “An archeological site like Barker’s rink would be a candidate for a cool virtual reality tour along the lines of a New York Times 360° video.” The potential of the site to tell the story of outdoor ice skating and ice hockey in New Zealand has been identified by the DOC. “The designation of the site as an Actively Conserved Historic Place recognizes this and entails a commitment to maintain the key buildings and structures in the expectation that despite being fairly isolated, the difficulty of access may change some time in the future,” shared Lizzy Sutcliffe, a representative from the DOC. The rink was subdivided over its first few years of use, with up to seven rinks existing in the 1940s. One reason for doing this was that the ice was not freezing well. It also allowed one of the rinks to be dedicated to ice hockey, which Barker was passionate about. In fact, he was an important figure in the history of ice hockey in New Zealand, establishing the Erewhorn Cup, an ice hockey tournament that persists to this day. “The main focus of the...

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Rediscovering Julius von Haast, Pioneer of Glaciology

Posted by on Dec 6, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

Rediscovering Julius von Haast, Pioneer of Glaciology

Spread the News:ShareIn the history of glaciology, New Zealand’s German-born Julius von Haast ranks as an influential but otherwise little-known pioneer. In the 19th century, Haast’s scientific explorations led him to glacier-rich areas across New Zealand where he gave names to landforms, including the well-known Franz Josef, Hooker, and Mueller Glaciers on the West Coast’s South Island. A recent report by Sascha Nolden for the Canterbury Museum strives to recognize the overlooked life and legacy of Haast, who to this day continues to influence glacier researchers around the world. “Famous? No, Julius is not famous, even today,” said Joerg Schaefer, a professor at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, to GlacierHub. “But he was indeed a great explorer and glacier geologist in New Zealand. He was not only a fellow citizen of mine, but one of my heroes.” Haast has served as a role model for modern-day scientists like Schaefer, with his work paving the way for future scientific research. “Our team has worked in New Zealand for 15 years following in Haast’s footsteps,” said Schaefer. By scrutinizing archival material such as manuscripts, letters, photographs and sketches held in the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Nolden carefully rediscovered Haast’s biography, documenting Haast’s notable research, exploration, institution-building and collegial cooperation that continues to influence today’s scientists. “Haast was one of the leading New Zealand scientists of the second half of the nineteenth century,” writes Nolden, research librarian at the Alexander Turnbull Library, in his report. “He was a remarkable individual noted for his stamina and perseverance in the face of obstacles, ranging from the mountain wilderness to the tangles of provincial bureaucracy.” Born in 1822 in Bonn, Germany, Haast first studied geology and mineralogy at the University of the Rhine, although he never graduated. He later spent time in the high mountains of New Zealand in the 1860s, visiting the region’s glaciers and making original watercolor sketches of the mountains. His sketches and maps have been useful to glaciologists as they attempt to date various landforms. It was during Haast’s explorations in New Zealand that he began to give names to glaciers, creating what he called a “Pantheon” of landforms named for prominent individuals from leading scholars to emperors, according to chief paleontologist Charles Alexander Fleming. In addition, his studies of the effects of past glaciation became the basis for later works on glacier geology. In 1862, Haast specifically surveyed the geology of the Canterbury district and visited its glaciers. His mapping and mountaineering expeditions of Mueller Glacier, for example, became a valuable first-hand resource to Thomas Lowell et al.’s research on the Rhizocarpon calibration curve (an application tool to assess Little Ice Age glacier behavior) for the Aoraki/Mount Cook area. In his report, Nolden references 165 of Haast’s drawings from South Island surveys from 1860 to 1868 that can be found in the Haast archives. Other panoramic watercolors of the Southern Alps and map sketches of the glacier geology of New Zealand are in private collections such as in the Hochstetter Collection Basel. In addition to these works, Haast published one book of his research, entitled “Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand: A Report Comprising the Results of Official Explorations” (Haast 1879). Other useful, unpublished manuscripts written by Haast have also been located and preserved. Interestingly, despite these archives, little is known about Haast’s early life. Almost everything written about him concerns what he did after arriving to New Zealand, a fact that is often frustrating to historians. The most complete source of Haast to date is a biography written by his son, Heinrich von Haast. “For the biographer, Haast is...

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An Earthquake, a Landslide and Two Glaciers in New Zealand

Posted by on Nov 29, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Science | 1 comment

An Earthquake, a Landslide and Two Glaciers in New Zealand

Spread the News:ShareGlaciers can play an important role in landscape dynamics, interacting with other factors to shape landscape development. Two days after a 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck North Canterbury, New Zealand, a landslide occurred between nearby Fox and Franz Josef glaciers. This landslide could offer insight into the role of glaciers in seismically active areas, particularly concerning the ways in which glaciers interact with earthquake-related instabilities in the landscape. The landslide occurred at Omoeroa at around 2 p.m. (GMT +12 hours) on November 16th, closing off a section of State Highway 6 along the west coast of South Island for about three hours until debris were cleared. Due to a slip SH6 is CLOSED btwn Fox Glacier & Franz Josef. Delay your journey. Next update due 6pm. https://t.co/mjVBgtfl9t ^LT pic.twitter.com/n1Vanu1elV — NZTA Canterbury/WC (@NZTACWC) November 16, 2016 Earthquakes and landslides are common in New Zealand due to the country’s location on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the area around the Pacific Ocean that is very seismically active. It is so named because of the prevalence of volcanic activity within the ring, which is made up by the major tectonic plate boundaries. Earthquakes, which occur when Earth’s crust breaks along faults (fractures in the crust), send tremors outwards from the point of breakage. This particular earthquake was caused by oblique-reverse faulting (faulting that had both strike-slip and reverse components) near the boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. Landslides, like the one that occurred between the two glaciers, are often triggered by other natural disasters, such as earthquakes or floods. In this case, the earthquake and its aftershocks triggered up to 100,000 landslides, causing local damage and blocking major roads and railway routes. In conversation with GlacierHub, Umesh Haritashya, an associate professor in environmental geology at the University of Dayton, explained that the region in which the landslide occurred is prone to landslides even without any seismic activity. This is due to the topography of New Zealand’s Southern Alps. As such, it would not be surprising if the earthquake, landslide and glaciers are connected, he said. While the two glaciers are found on the west coast of South Island, the earthquake occurred on the east coast of the island. The distance between the two suggests that the intensity of the tremors experienced in the area around the landslide may have been quite low. Nonetheless, a link is possible, according to Jeff Kargel, a geoscientist at the University of Arizona. “The timing of this big landslide is certainly suggestive of a direct link to the earthquake,” Kargel told GlacierHub. “For both direct and circumstantial reasons, earthquakes, glaciers and landslides are closely associated,” Kargel explained. “There is the direct influence of glaciers that produce lots of unstable rock debris over thousands of years, and there are indirect influences, where glaciers erode the mountain topography and produce very steep slopes. These factors create conditions under which seismic activity can easily set off landslides.” In addition, Kargel noted that glaciers occur where uplift rates have been high and the terrain is elevated to begin with. This means that either circumstantially or indirectly, glaciers and landslides can occur nearby. Kargel further stated that large earthquakes tend to create instabilities in the landscape that are later exploited by natural processes, making landslides more frequent in the aftermath of earthquakes. “The spike in landslide activity can last for several years,” he said. In addition to seismic activity, other causes like heavy rain after the earthquake could have contributed to the occurrence of the landslide. New Zealand’s MetService reported that the areas of the glaciers had received considerable...

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As Glaciers Melt, Tourists Keep on Coming to New Zealand

Posted by on Jul 26, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Tourism | 0 comments

As Glaciers Melt, Tourists Keep on Coming to New Zealand

Spread the News:ShareWhile more people are visiting iconic New Zealand glaciers because of concerns that climate change might wipe out the ice masses altogether, visitors are reportedly underwhelmed by the melting, gray glaciers.  This finding is documented in a new multidisciplinary study, “Implications of climate change for glacier tourism,” released last month in Tourism Geographies. The findings were published by Emma J. Stewart and researchers at Lincoln University, in Canterbury, New Zealand, in conjunction with others from neighboring and international universities. The study examines the impacts of climate change on the Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers in New Zealand’s South Island, and how these effects have trickled down to local tourism. The tourism industry there collectively attracted over 500,000 international visitors in 2015. These glaciers, located in Westland Tai Poutini National Park, are just two of New Zealand’s more than 3,100 glaciers, but they are the country’s most beloved and visited, and have received a flow of tourists dating back to the early 1900s. Their distinctive morphology creates glacier tongues that flow down from the high mountains to low, visitor-accessible elevations. However, studies show that glacier recession has accelerated at an unprecedented rate in New Zealand. Previous studies estimate that Fox Glacier lost over 700 meters in length between 2008 and 2015, and that neighboring Franz Josef Glacier experienced a similar rate of reduction. Recent modeling estimates that Franz Josef Glacier will shed 62 percent of its current volume by 2100. In order to explore perceptions of change with regard to glaciers and tourism, the researchers conducted 13 stakeholder interviews with employees from the New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC) and commercial tourism businesses at the two glaciers. They also administered questionnaires to 500 English-speaking visitors who were returning from guided walks to view Fox or Franz Josef Glacier. Researchers asked visitors about their reasons for journeying to the sites and their overall satisfaction with their glacier visit. Stakeholders showed widespread agreement that the region’s glacier tourism industry was largely inspired by visitor perceptions of the glaciers as a “bucket list” item or as a “last chance” tourism trip. The notion of “last chance” glacial tourism encapsulates visitors’ desires to observe, photograph, or interact with threatened or rare physical features and natural landmarks. The study suggests that New Zealand’s high levels of glacier tourism are largely due to visitors’ desire to visit these iconic natural landmarks before they disappear. The study also reveals that stakeholders and tourists alike perceive the glaciers as highly significant to the region and to New Zealand. “The glaciers are first and foremost the reason why people stop at Franz and Fox,” a DOC employee stressed.  A Franz Josef tourism manager echoed these sentiments, telling his interviewers, “If the glaciers were not here, these towns would not be either.” “[The glaciers] are hugely significant to New Zealand – culturally, naturally and economically. They are icon destinations on the South Island,” one of the study’s two lead researchers, Emma Stewart of Lincoln University, told GlacierHub in an email. Yet while stakeholders are in widespread agreement of the glaciers’ importance to the region, and the time-sensitive nature of the possibilities of visiting them, the study’s interviews reveal that visitors are also expressing less wonder at the sight of the once majestic glaciers. In the survey, one DOC ranger said, “I would feel much better if the glaciers were coming forward, they always look better, whereas now it’s just a dirty old strip of ice up around the corner.” The study noted that “significant segments of the visitor population” found that their expectation of the size and condition of the glaciers “exceeded the reality.” On average,...

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Roundup: Glacier Tourism, Monitoring, and Melt

Posted by on Jul 11, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Glacier Tourism, Monitoring, and Melt

Spread the News:ShareEach weekly Roundup, we highlight three stories from the forefront of glacier news.   Tourists’ take “last chance” to see New Zealand Glaciers From The International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment: “For more than 100 years, the Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers in Westland Tai Poutini National Park have attracted thousands of tourists annually and have emerged as iconic destinations in New Zealand. However, in recent years, the recession of both glaciers has been increasingly rapid and the impacts on, and implications for, visitor experiences in these settings remain relatively unexplored…Results revealed the fundamental importance of viewing the glaciers as a significant travel motive of visitors, suggesting that there is a ‘last chance’ dimension to their experience. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a high adaptive capacity of local tourism operators under rapidly changing environmental conditions.” To read the full study, click here.   Glacier monitoring in the pre-internet era From AGU Blogosphere: “We have been monitoring the annual mass balance of Easton Glacier on Mount Baker, a stratovolcano in the North Cascade Range, Washington since 1990.  This is one of nine glaciers we are continuing to monitor, seven of which have a 32 year long record. The initial exploration done in the pre-internet days required visiting libraries to look at topographic maps and buying a guide book to trails for the area.  This was followed by actual letters, not much email then, to climbers who had explored the glacier in the past, for old photographs.  Armed with photographs and maps we then determined where to locate base camp and how to access the glacier.” For more, go to the AGU Blog post here, and check out “Easton Glacier Monitoring” by Mauri Pelto on Vimeo   Water scarcity in central Asia From The World Bank: “Communities in Central Asia talk about how water is vital but scarce resource across the region. The Central Asia Energy-Water Development Program (CAEWDP) works to ensure effective energy and water management, including at the regional level. This work should accelerate investment, promote economic growth and stable livelihoods.” http://glacierhub.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/The_Water-Energy_Challenge_in_Central_Asia.mp4 For more, click here.  Spread the...

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