Posts Tagged "melt"

Roundup: Border claims, melting, and a new superhero

Posted by on Sep 14, 2015 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Border claims, melting, and a new superhero

Spread the News:ShareMont Blanc: fresh row over territory as France blocks glacier access   “A fresh row over borders has erupted between France and Italy on Mont Blanc – or Monte Bianco – after the mayor of Chamonix blocked access to a precarious glacier that the Italians claim is in their territory. Eric Fournier took the decision to close a gate – installed by the Italians – that gave access to Giant glacier, situated at an altitude of 3500m. They claim the route is unsafe.” To read more, click here.   Glacier Girl is reinventing the eco-friendly aesthetic for the tumblr generation “London teen Elizabeth Farrell is changing the way we look at environmental activism…. The 19-year-old invented the superhero pseudonym Glacier Girl and her project, Remember The Glaciers, as a way to speak to her peers about the dangers of global warming. What began as a high school art assignment has become a calling for Elizabeth, who was awarded a Gap Year Scholarship by Britain’s Royal Geographical Society last year to focus on the project full-time.” To learn more about Glacier Girl, click here.   Peruvian glacier shows significant meltdown from climate change “The Incachiriasca glacier, located on the Vilcabamba mountain range in the Peruvian region of Cuzco, has retreated some 62 meters (203 feet) over the past eight years due to the effects of climate change, the head of the Machu Picchu Historic Sanctuary, Jose Nieto, told EFE.”   Read more about Peru’s glacial melting here.     Spread the...

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Supercool water found near glaciers

Posted by on May 20, 2015 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images, News, Science | 0 comments

Supercool water found near glaciers

Spread the News:ShareTemperatures in Spitbergen, Norway may be below freezing, but the water around the Glacier Front isn’t frozen, researchers Eugene Morozov from Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Aleksey Marchenko from the University Center in Svalbard, and Yu. D. Fomin from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, found, This process of supercooling, also known as undercooling, happens when the temperature of a liquid or a gas drops below its freezing point without it becoming a solid. Experiments on Youtube show people taking liquid water out of their freezers, and pouring it on white plate under normal temperature. As the water hits the plate, it instantaneously turns into ice. There are two methods for making water supercool. The first method, like the one show in Youtube videos, can only be achieved when water is extremely pure. Impure water has ‘nucleation sites,’ where water molecules gather and gradually solidify during the freezing process. People can make supercool water with a simple refrigerator and a bottle of pure water. The other method relates to salinity and water pressure. Supercool water can occur under conditions of heat removal, different rates of heat and salt diffusion and rapid pressure decrease, chemists Valeria Molinero and Emily Moore in University of Utah found after much experimentation in 2011. With higher pressure, water will freeze at temperatures below 0 degree Celsius. In addition, higher salinity will also result in a lower freezing temperature. According to Figure 2, the freezing point will change depending on salinity and water pressure.     Previously, supercool water had only been created under laboratory conditions. However, the new findings from Eugene Morozov and his colleagues show that there is Glaciohydraulic supercooling water around the glacier that mixes and cools with high salinity and high pressure water. The bottom of the glacier is approximately 15 m from the sea surface. The melt water (fresh water) flows from the glacier at a temperature of 0 C. After mixing with surrounding seawater with a temperature of – 1.8 C, melt water cools to temperatures lower than -1.8 C while ascending to the surface. As it surfaces, its temperature is close to the freezing point of seawater(-1.8 C). That temperature is lower than the freezing temperature of freshwater and its internal energy does not reach the equilibrium state required for freezing. This freshwater from glaciers cools to temperatures lower than freezing without becoming ice.     The finding in Spitbergen is supported by research from Dr. Igor Dmitrenko, who works for Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences at University of Kiel. He found that supercool water also exists in polynas, an area of open water surrounded by sea ice. However, this condition cannot be observed all the time since it cannot exist for an extended period. Supercooling water will transfer to the other states of water in a short time. It could play a crucial role in sea ice formation, researchers say. “While frazil ice [needle-shaped ice fragments in water] formation in the Arctic was carefully examined over the past several years for the St. Lawrence Island and the Storfjord polynyas […] the processes controlling the sea ice growth due to supercooled water and frazil ice formation over the Siberian Arctic shelf remain poorly understood, owing to the scarce instrumental records and extreme climatic conditions,” Dmitrenko wrote in his study.  “From these considerations, supercooling might play a critical role in the shelf salt budget and sea ice production” Check more information about glacier at Glacierhub. Spread the...

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The Chameleon Glaciers

Posted by on Apr 16, 2015 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

The Chameleon Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareCan you spot the glacier on the picture above? Not that easy… Glacier Noir is a debris-covered glacier located in the French Alps. Contrary to clean-ice glaciers which are shiny white or blue ice masses, debris-covered glaciers are ice masses with a layer of rock debris on the top which makes them look like their surrounding environment: they are the “chameleon glaciers”. They are currently called debris-covered glaciers but in the early 2000s, you could hear “debris-mantled glaciers” and even “buried glaciers” in the 1960s. They are often confused with rock glaciers. There are a lot of names and confusion around debris-covered glaciers. Why? Simply because they are difficult to find, define and study as you can imagine from the picture above. Debris-covered glaciers represent around 5% of all mountains glaciers in the world. So why is it important to study them – there are many more clean-ice glaciers, aren’t there? Yes, debris-covered glaciers are a small fraction of all glaciers but like any other glacier, the melting of debris-covered glaciers contributes to sea level rise and there is currently huge uncertainty about how fast they melt compared to clean-ice glaciers. In addition, in the Himalayas, they make up a greater proportion of the glaciers and in many valleys, debris-covered glaciers are the main and often the only source of drinking water, like for example the famous Khumbu Glacier just below Mount Everest on the Nepal side. Some debris-covered glaciers, like the Tasman Glacier, the biggest glacier in New Zealand, are very large features that can be the origin of risks and hazards. The debris layer creates numerous ponds filled with meltwater on the surface of glaciers. These ponds can hold monumental volumes of water that can be suddenly and brutally drained through crevasses in the ice or a breach on their edge. This drainage can create an outburst flood and submerge the valley below. Debris layers on top of glaciers can come from rock falls, like for the Sherman Glacier in Alaska. This rock cover modifies the dynamics of the ice by slowing down the melting happening underneath. This insulation process creates various phenomena, like thickening of the ice under the debris, building hills of ice slowly moving down the glacier or advancement of the glacier’s tongue. These two phenomena can block or deviate water streams and again generate massive floods. A less obvious reason to study debris-covered glaciers is that if glaciers on Mars exist, they are debris-covered. So studying debris-covered glaciers on Earth can contribute to space conquest and the human adventure on Mars. In the same vein, studying current debris-covered glaciers and their behavior in the face of climate change can help us understand and interpret the climate of the past. There is an example of a potential misinterpretation of the Waiho Loop moraine in New Zealand in front of the Franz-Joseph Glacier: 12000 years there was a worldwide cooling event (called Younger Dryas) that might have led to the formation of the very large moraine of Waiho Loop. Or, a massive rock avalanche landing on Franz-Joseph Glacier triggered its advance and the deposition of the moraine. I’ve already described a few examples of debris-covered glaciers: Glacier Noir, Khumbu Glacier, Tasman Glacier, Sherman Glacier and maybe Franz-Joseph Glacier. But where else can you find debris-covered glaciers? They can actually be found in every mountain range: from the Miage Glacier (Italy) in the European Alps with  to the Inylchek Glacier (Kyrgyzstan) or Langtang (Nepal) glaciers in the Asian High Mountain; from the Black Rapids Glacier (Alaska) in the Rocky Mountains and the Dome Glacier (Canada), to the Andes...

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Roundup: Rare Insect, Conference, New Fragrance

Posted by on Dec 29, 2014 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News | 0 comments

Roundup: Rare Insect, Conference, New Fragrance

Spread the News:ShareRare Insect Imperiled by Melting Glaciers “The persistence of an already rare aquatic insect, the western glacier stonefly, is being imperiled by the loss of glaciers and increased stream temperatures due to climate warming in mountain ecosystems, according to a new study released in Freshwater Science. In the study, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Bucknell University, and the University of Montana illustrate the shrinking habitat of the western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) associated with glacial recession using data spanning from 1960 – 2012. ” Read more at USGS newsroom.   Conference “Arctic, Subarctic: Mosaic, Contrast, Variability of the Cryosphere” “The international conference ‘Arctic, Subarctic: Mosaic, Contrast, Variability of the Cryosphere’ will be held on 2-5 July 2015 in Tyumen, Russia. The conference is organized by Tyumen State Oil and Gas University and Tyumen Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. ” Read more at UArctic.   Vat­na­jökull glac­ier: a new men’s fragrance “Hafþór Júlíus Björns­son, oth­er­wise known as The Moun­tain, has be­come the face of men’s fra­grance Vat­na­jökull. Björns­son, who rose to fame in the Game of Thrones se­ries, showed his model side in a se­ries of shots taken on Vat­na­jökull glac­ier. ” Read more at mbl.is. Spread the...

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Photo Friday: Glacier Melt and the 2014 AGU Conference

Posted by on Dec 26, 2014 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Glacier Melt and the 2014 AGU Conference

Spread the News:ShareLast week, the fall meeting of the American Geophysics Union wrapped up in San Francisco. The meeting is the largest annual gathering of Earth and space scientists. This year about 24,000 people were in attendance. Hundreds of oral and poster presentations across all areas of geophysical research marked this year’s meeting, which included several findings on glacier melt rates from around the world. Here are a few of the more stunning pictures of glaciers from around the world to be discussed at the conference. Photo Friday highlights photo essays and collections from areas with glaciers. If you have photos you’d like to share, let us know in the comments, by Twitter @glacierhub or email us at glacierhub@gmail.com. Snow_June_4 glacialerratic_NH-300x168 DSC04559-2 DSC03396-2 7166014680_26bb9c4af3_k Spread the...

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