Posts Tagged "lahar"

The Messy Encounter of Volcanoes and Glaciers

Posted by on Mar 30, 2017 in All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, News | 0 comments

The Messy Encounter of Volcanoes and Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareLahars, or mudflows from the eruptions of glacier-covered volcanoes, are a threat that the communities of Skagit Valley in northwest Washington live with. These destructive mudflows can be triggered during volcanic eruptions when hot water and debris rush downslope from the volcano and mix with glacial water. A recent study from the Journal of Applied Volcanology by Corwin et al., identifies ways to improve hazard management and community preparedness in Washington’s Skagit Valley, home to Mount Baker, the second most glaciated volcano in the Cascade Range, and Glacier Peak, the second most explosive. The highly populated communities within Skagit Valley remain especially at risk for dangerous mudflows since both Mount Baker and Glacier Peak are considered active lahar hazard zones. All five of Washington’s Cascade Range volcanoes are active. These volcanoes are especially dangerous because in addition to flowing molten lava and spewed ash that can destroy everything downhill, volcanoes with snow and ice at their peaks can create additional perils. Heat from the eruption can melt the snow or ice that has accumulated, create mud, and pour down narrow mountain valleys. This mixture of water and rock fragments that flows downslope of a volcano into a river valley has dangerous repercussions for communities like those in the Skagit Valley. While lahars can be visually stunning when the volcanic material interacts with glaciers —  see the remarkable images in GlacierHub’s recent article on these events in the Kamchatka Peninsula in Far East Russia — lahars can cause extensive damage to the built environment as boulders destroy structures and mud buries entire communities. Moving lahars appear as a roiling slurry of wet concrete and can grow in volume as they incorporate everything in their path —  rocks, soil, vegetation, and even buildings and bridges. Corwin et al. determined that a crucial disaster risk management strategy for lahar events is “whole community” training programs, which emphasize household preparedness and help disaster responders better perform their duties. Since lahars can cause widespread damage to the surrounding environment, it is important for community members to understand how to address the hazard before it occurs. The focus of the research was on the ascription of responsibility on preparedness and the influence of professional participation in hazard management on household preparedness and risk perception. Disaster response professionals know  the best household preparedness measures, yet they sometimes fail to implement these measures in their own households. The study found that this may be a result of professional disaster responders being out in the field during a disaster, instead of in their homes. Even more surprising, response professionals failed to interpret local volcanic hazard maps more accurately than laypeople. There could be several reasons for this that need to be explored in a subsequent study, but as Kimberley Corwin, a geoscientist and the leading author of the study,  explains, it could be because “people in both groups drew on outside information such as what they remembered or learned about the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption.” When asked by GlacierHub about her familiarity with lahars, Corwin described her closest experience with an active volcano in Chile’s March 2015 Villarrica volcano eruption. Corwin was in Pucón, Chile, for a volcanology course with Boise State University. The group of academics arrived two weeks after the main fire fountain event, which triggered a lahar. There was still active ash venting in the area. “While we were there, the alert levels in the town were elevated and a 5-kilometer exclusion zone was set up around the vent,” Corwin explained. “It offered a great opportunity to observe the reactions of locals, tourists, and officials.” Corwin’s further...

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Roundup: Glacier Park, Lahars, and Glacial Ecosystems

Posted by on Mar 6, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Glacier Park, Lahars, and Glacial Ecosystems

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Glacier Park, Lahars and Ecosystems Glacier National Park Embraces Sustainability From Xanterra: “Just 150 years ago, 150 glaciers graced these spectacular alpine summits. Only 25 remain large enough today to be considered ‘functional,’ say scientists who expect the park’s glaciers to vanish by 2030, with many disappearing before that. People heeding the advice to visit soon will find a variety of national park lodging and dining spots that are making environmental stewardship part of the park experience.” Read more about it here.     Washington State’s Lahar Preparedness From Journal of Applied Volcanology: “As populations around the world encroach upon the flanks of nearby volcanoes, an increasing number of people find themselves living at risk from volcanic hazards. How these individuals respond to the threats posed by volcanic hazards influences the effectiveness of official hazard mitigation, response, and recovery efforts. Ideally, those who are aware of the hazards and concerned should feel motivated to become better prepared; however, research repeatedly shows that an accurate risk perception often fails to generate adequate preparedness… This study explores the barriers that people in the Skagit Valley of Washington face when deciding whether or not to prepare for lahars as well as the impact of participation in hazard management on household preparedness behaviors.” Read more about Washington’s lahar preparedness here.   How Changing Climate Affects Ecosystems From Environmental Research Letters: “Climate change is undeniably occurring across the globe, with warmer temperatures and climate and weather disruptions in diverse ecosystems (IPCC 2013, 2014). In the Arctic and Subarctic, climate change has proceeded at a particularly breakneck pace (ACIA 2005)… However, climate warming is forecast to be even more extreme in the future. In order to predict the impacts of further global change, experiments have simulated these future conditions by warming the air and/or soil, increasing CO2 levels, altering nutrient fertilization, modifying precipitation, or manipulating snow cover and snowmelt timing (Elmendorf et al 2015, Wu et al 2011, Bobbink et al 2010, Cooper 2014). Changes in biodiversity at high latitudes are expected to have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning, processes, and services (Post et al 2009).” Read more about how changing climate affects ecosystems here. Spread the...

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When Lava Hits Ice in Russia’s Far East

Posted by on Feb 15, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

When Lava Hits Ice in Russia’s Far East

Spread the News:ShareThe Kamchatka Peninsula in Far East Russia is an isolated region known for its glacier-volcano interactions that can lead to powerful natural disasters— and also, visually stunning images when lava impacts ice. One of these volcanoes, Sheveluch, has been erupting in recent weeks, creating local hazards. The volcano’s ash cloud, for one, threatens to disrupt air traffic in the region. In total, Kamchatka is home to 160 volcanoes, 29 of which are currently active. These volcanoes— six of which are designated UNESCO World Heritage sites— are tall and far enough north to harbor glaciers. As such, they are associated with lahars, devastating mudslides down the slopes of a volcano triggered by an eruption and melting glaciers. These mudslides move quickly, destroying most of the structures in their path. Explosive-effusive #eruption of 2016 (April to October)#volcano #Klyuchevskoy 08/21/2016Photo: Vladimir Voychuk pic.twitter.com/5wOhpyVg1s — Войчук Владимир (@voy4uk) January 26, 2017 Avachinsky is one active volcano in the region that is covered in glaciers, placing the surrounding region at a greater risk for lahars. Avachinsky is classified as a stratovolcano, which is a volcano that has been built up by alternate layers of lava and ash. It is the volcano closest to the state capital Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.  “The Avachinsky volcano is glacierized, and the melting of ice poses a serious lahar threat the next time the volcano is active,” Ben Edwards, a volcanologist and professor at Dickinson College, warns. Edwards explained to GlacierHub that there are many deposits mapped out that are indicative of past lahars. Previous lahars in the Kamchatka Peninsula have been devastating with high human death tolls. The Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia, for example, erupted in 1985, producing a lahar that killed 23,000 people. “They are incredible forces of nature and also brutally destructive and deadly,” said Janine Krippner, a PhD candidate in volcanology and remote sensing at the University of Pittsburgh, in an interview with GlacierHub. The Klyuchevskaya Sopka stratovolcano is the highest mountain on the peninsula and the highest active volcano in Eurasia. In November 2016 and more recently in January, the volcano spewed ash six kilometers above sea level. Such an ash cloud can disrupt international travel. Klyuchevskaya has produced notable lahars in the past including one particularly damaging one in 1993, according to Edwards. The position of a glacier on a volcano can influence the risk of a lahar.  However, there is still much research needed on past lahars at Klyuchevskaya to better understand risk, notes Edwards. “Many volcanoes have glaciers up high, but those close to Klyuchevskaya are on the western lower flank,” explained Edwards. “There have probably been some interactions and definitely lahars generated from historic flows. But these eruptions have not been well documented.” Higher regions, which tend to be cooler and moister, are more likely to form glaciers. Sheveluch Peak is a very active volcano, and the largest on the peninsula at 1,300 cubic kilometers in volume. Many glacier-volcano interactions have occurred at the location, releasing great quantities of steam and creating fantastic imagery for photographers. Similar volcano-snow interactions also take place elsewhere on the peninsula, especially during the winter, according to Edwards. “We saw spectacular examples during the 2012-13 Tolbachik eruption,” he said. The World Heritage website, which features several of the Kamchatka Peninsula volcanoes, makes special note of the “dynamic landscape of great beauty” created by the interplay of active volcanoes and glacier forms. In addition, the peninsula has a wide diversity of species including brown bears, sea otters and the world’s largest variety of salmon fish. It is also known for a wide variety of birds from falcons to eagles that are attracted to the...

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Photo Friday: Volcanic Readiness in Colombia

Posted by on Aug 26, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Volcanic Readiness in Colombia

Spread the News:ShareThe Volcanic and Seismological Observatory of Manizales has recently conducted several workshops on volcanic risk with communities in the vicinity of Nevado del Ruiz, a glacier-covered volcano in Colombia that showed signs of renewed activity earlier this year. The workshops prepare communities to react to volcanic hazards like ash and lahars, the latter of which can occur when lava flow mixes with the icy temperatures of glaciers. Locals participate in focus groups and model experiments to better understand the volcanic risks in their community. “Communication Strategy of Volcanic Risks,” is enacted in conjunction with the Colombian Geological Service, the National Unity of Disaster Risk Management, and other regional and municipal agencies. Check out some photos of the workshop, courtesy of the Observatory, below. A focus group in Los Alpes. A demonstration activity with the community of Playa Larga. A demonstration activity in Los Alpes. Los Nevados National Natural Park, with the Nevado del Ruiz in the far distance. Source: Juan Camilo Giraldo Falla. A demonstration activity with the community of Playa Larga. Click here to “like” the Observatory’s Facebook page and to see more photos of the project.   Spread the...

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Renewed Activity at Colombian Volcano Raises Concern

Posted by on Jun 29, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News | 0 comments

Renewed Activity at Colombian Volcano Raises Concern

Spread the News:ShareThe glacier-covered Volcan del Ruiz in Colombia has shown signs of renewed activity in the last several days, following a shallow earthquake of 3.0 on the Richter scale on June 22, associated with fracturing of rock within the volcano. The Colombian Geological Service recognized this fracturing as a sign of possible movements of magma that could lead to an eruption of lava. Tom Pfeiffer, a German volcanologist, suggested that the earthquake was “possibly caused by increased magma pressure inside the volcano’s upper storage system.” Earlier this week, on June 27, the volcano released an ash cloud, reaching 1,800 meters above the summit. A second emission on June 28 attained a height of 850 meters. Its volume was sufficient to threaten aircraft in the region, which led to the sudden closure of the regional airport in Manizales, 25 kilometers to the northwest. One local resident released alerts on Twitter, directing people to close windows and to wear face masks as protection against the ash. In a second tweet, included below, she indicated that the warning level had been raised from yellow to orange, “alerta naranja,” though official sources in the Colombian Geological Service and the regional Risk Management Unit wrote to assure the public that the warning level remained at yellow. Alerta explosion en el volcan arenas nevado del ruiz hace 15 minutos.alerta naranja pic.twitter.com/wofG5FcLBs — ANGELA (@abeta13) June 28, 2016 On its Facebook page, the regional Volcanic and Seismological Observatory released a video of the most recent eruption, taken on its webcam: As GlacerHub explained in a recent post, the presence of glaciers on the volcano’s summit creates the risk of destructive debris flows known as lahars. The very rapid melting of ice caused by contact with molten lava can cause floods to rush down the mountain’s slopes, carrying large quantities of ash, rock and soil to populated areas. An eruption of the volcano in 1985 led to over 23,000 deaths. The Colombian authorities and local citizens are monitoring this situation closely. If an eruption is likely, the municipalities in the region will receive warnings. GlacierHub will report on any significant intensification of the volcano’s activity. Spread the...

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