Posts Tagged "himalaya"

Photo Friday: Through the Lens of a Tajikistani Glaciologist

Posted by on Aug 7, 2015 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images, Science | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Through the Lens of a Tajikistani Glaciologist

Spread the News:ShareEarth scientists and glaciologists often have the opportunity to explore and witness Earth’s glaciers and geological landscapes through fieldwork. This Tajikistani glaciologist, Dr. Farshed Karimov, a professor at the National University of Tajikistan, recently published a presentation on glacial dynamic modelling. In it, he included stunning photos from his travels, mainly of the Pamir Mountains, a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas. We’ve excerpted a few of Karimov’s photos below. Glacial Mountain Medvejii - Bear Glacier, Pamir Aral Lake Two cyclists biking down a mountain glacier Glacial Desert To access Dr. Karimov’s presentation on glacial dynamic modelling or to contact him for more information, please email fhkarim@mail.tj.   Spread the...

Read More

Roundup: Climate Science and International Adaptation

Posted by on Jun 8, 2015 in Adaptation, All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Roundup, Science | 0 comments

Roundup: Climate Science and International Adaptation

Spread the News:ShareIntegration of Glacier and Snow “Energy budget-based distributed modeling of snow and glacier melt runoff is essential in a hydrologic model to accurately describe hydrologic processes in cold regions and high-altitude catchments. We developed herein an integrated modeling system with an energy budget-based multilayer scheme for clean glaciers, a single-layer scheme for debris-covered glaciers, and multilayer scheme for seasonal snow over glacier, soil, and forest within a distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework.” Read more of the article here.   Climate Science on Glaciers “The 2001–2013 sum of positive temperatures (SPT) record, as a proxy of snow/ice ablation, has been obtained for the high-mountain glaciarized Munku-Sardyk massif, East Sayan Mountains, using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The SPT (and ice melt) demonstrates a significant decreasing trend, with the highest values in 2001, 2002, and 2007, and the lowest in 2013. We have investigated relationships between potential summer ablation and synoptic-scale conditions over the study area.” Read more of this article here. International Adaptation to Glacier Retreat “The transboundary Himalayan Rivers flowing through Bhutan to India and Bangladesh constitute an enormous asset for economic development in a region which contains the largest number of poor people in the world. However, the rapid retreat of Himalayan glaciers has made South Asia vulnerable to variety of water-related natural hazards and disasters such as floods, landslides, and glacial lake outburst.” Read more of this book chapter here. Spread the...

Read More

Roundup: Black Carbon, Winds, and Supraglacial Lakes

Posted by on May 4, 2015 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Black Carbon, Winds, and Supraglacial Lakes

Spread the News:ShareLight-absorbing Particles in Peru “Glaciers in the tropical Andes have been rapidly losing mass since the 1970s. In addition to the documented increase in temperature, increases in light-absorbing particles deposited on glaciers could be contributing to the observed glacier loss. Here we report on measurements of lightabsorbing particles sampled from glaciers during three surveys in the Cordillera Blanca Mountains in Peru.” Read more here. Winds on Glaciers “We investigate properties of the turbulent flow and sensible heat fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer of the high elevation tropical Zongo glacier (Bolivia) from data collected in the dry season from July to August 2007, with an eddy-covariance system and a 6-m mast for wind speed and temperature profiles. Focus is on the predominant downslope wind regime.” Read more here. Supraglacial Lakes in Central Karakoram Himalaya “This paper discusses the formation and variations of supraglacial lakes on the Baltoro glacier system in the Central Karakoram Himalaya during the last four decades. We mapped supraglacial lakes on the Baltoro Glacier from 1978 to 2014 using Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+ and LCDM images. Most of the glacial lakes were formed or expanded during the late 1970s to 2008. After 2008, the total number and the area of glacial lakes were found to be lesser compared to previous years.” Read more here.   Spread the...

Read More

New Route Up Mt. Everest

Posted by on Mar 11, 2015 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Images, News, Tourism | 1 comment

New Route Up Mt. Everest

Spread the News:ShareLast year’s deadly avalanche on Mt. Everest in Nepal, which killed 16 Sherpas–mountaineering guides indigenous to the region–has led to new safety recommendations for both guides and tourists. The Nepalese authorities have ordered climbers to shift their path up the mountain, to avoid the route of last year’s disaster, according to Vice magazine. The new path will bring people to the middle of the Khumbu Icefall, instead of the west shoulder of the Icefall, where the guides were buried in the avalanche. The new path might be more technically difficult for climbers, but government officials say it is safer. Last year, the Nepalese government came under fire for failing to sufficiently compensate Sherpa families for the guides’  deaths and for attempting to keep climbing season open, putting the lives of guides and climbers at risk. Tourism is the largest industry in Nepal, providing 4% of gross domestic product, and the tourists come for Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world. Of the nearly 800,000 tourists who visited Nepal in 2013, over 10% went hiking or climbing. Though the number of guides killed last year is high, the record for highest number of total deaths from a single accident occurred in 2001, when a blizzard and several avalanches in central Nepal are reported to have killed at least three local guides and 26 tourists, including Israelis, Poles, Nepalese, Canadians, Slovaks and one person from India. Recent data suggests that avalanches are the primary cause of death among guides in the Nepalese Himalayas, while falls are the primary cause of death among visitors. (See Figure 1 to the left.) Some 102 guide deaths were caused by avalanches between 1950 and 2006 of a total of 211 guide deaths, while 223 tourist deaths were caused by falls from high elevations, followed by 170 tourist deaths by avalanches over the period. A steady decrease in deaths among both tourists and guides began in about 1975 and lasted until 2005, at which point the trend reversed itself. The Kang Guru avalanche and three separate avalanches on Ama Dablam, Ganesh VII, and Pumori in 2006 killed 14 tourists and 18 guides and marked the beginning of an upswing. Figure 2, below, shows the trend in death rates from 1950 to 2006 among both tourists (“members,” in blue) and guides (“hired,” in red). As climate change melts glaciers around the world, avalanches could increase, threatening tourists and guides with more accidents. Even for the local Sherpa guides, the Himalayas become unfamiliar territory when the landscape is changed by receding ice. “Warmer temperatures and water from melting ice can combine to weaken a glacier’s grip on the underlying rock,” Jeffrey Kargel, a University of Arizona geologist, who has conducted regular studies on glaciers near Everest, told Vice magazine. To read more about last year’s Everest accident and the aftermath, read this post. Spread the...

Read More

Life Blooms in Tiny Cities at the Surface of Glaciers

Posted by on Dec 10, 2014 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

Life Blooms in Tiny Cities at the Surface of Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareYou might think glaciers would be hostile to life. But small water-filled holes at the surfaces of glaciers called cryoconite holes contain diverse collections of organisms. Like individual cities in a continent of ice, each hole contains its own distinct population of creatures. Some scientists believe glaciers should be considered a separate biome given the unique ecosystems that thrive there. While the bacteria that live in cryoconite holes have been studied extensively, little is known about the invertebrates that feed on them and on algae found in the holes—only 26 papers have been published on these invertebrates in the past 100 years. Polar biologist Krzysztof Zawierucha from the University of Poznan in Poland and other researchers recently attempted to catalog these invertebrates in a review paper published in the Journal of Zoology. Cryoconite holes, are created by cryoconite—windblown dust containing rock particles and soot—which darkens the surfaces of glaciers and accelerates melting. Cryoconite holes can form long-lasting habitats given that they are relatively unaffected by rapid environmental changes. These holes can be covered over by ice, or open to the elements.  For a brief explanation of what cryoconite is and how cryoconite holes are created, watch this video: Only 25 species of cryophilic invertebrates have so far been catalogued and studied, few of them endemic to cryoconite holes. These include insects and two phyla of worms (the ringed worms also known as annelids, and roundworms also known as nematodes), as well as the microscopic rotifers, and the less well known waterbears, whose technical name is  tardigrades. The species makeup of the cryoconite holes differs slightly in the Arctic, Antarctic, Patagonian, Alpine and Himalayan glaciers where they have been studied. Some of these hole-dwelling invertebrates have geographically restricted ranges, existing only on glaciers in the Alps or Himalayas. The authors suspect there are many more species living in these remote ice holes waiting to be discovered. The invertebrates are varied in coloration; some are black, others white, and still others are colorless; Zawierucha and his coauthors cite other studies indicating that the coloration may have adaptive value in these environments where ultraviolet radiation is strong. They have different mechanisms for surviving the very low temperatures and the threat of desiccation: some produce very hardy eggs, while others can enter a state of anabiosis—a sort of suspended animation—until conditions improve. Cryophilic ecosystems are threatened due to the melting of glaciers caused by climate change and pollution. But cryophilic animals may accelerate the melting of glaciers themselves, particularly those that are black in coloration. Because so little research has been conducted on them, it is possible that some species of cryophilic invertebrate will become extinct before it is catalogued by scientists. If you happen to stumble upon a cryoconite hole on a glacier, treat it with respect. It likely contains an entire world of busy organisms. For a story on plant spores that live on glacier surfaces, look here. Spread the...

Read More