Posts Tagged "black carbon"

Roundup: Rock Avalanche, Melting Sound, Black Carbon

Posted by on Mar 23, 2015 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup, Science | 0 comments

Roundup: Rock Avalanche, Melting Sound, Black Carbon

Spread the News:ShareLandslides on Glaciers “The chapter looks mainly at massive rock slope failures that generate high-speed, long- runout rock avalanches onto glaciers in high mountains, from subpolar through tropical latitudes. Drastic modifications of mountain landscapes and destructive impacts occur, and initiate other, longer-term hazards. Worst-case calamities are where mass flows continue into inhabited areas below the glaciers. Travel over glaciers can change landslide dynamics and amplify the speed and length of runout.” Read more about this chapter here.   Noise from Melting Glaciers “According to research accepted for publication in Geophysical Research Letters, a journal of the American Geophysical Union, the underwater noise levels are much louder than previously thought, which leads scientists to ask how the noise levels influence the behavior of harbor seals and whales in Alaska’s fjords.” Read more of this article.   Black Carbon in Tibetan Plateau “High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor.” Read the paper here.     Spread the...

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Roundup: New Stories on Black Carbon

Posted by on Jan 26, 2015 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images, News, Science | 0 comments

Roundup: New Stories on Black Carbon

Spread the News:ShareWe feature three stories, all of which focus on black carbon. This atmospheric pollutant plays an important role in accelerating glacier retreat. Moreover, policies can be designed to reduce it, by supporting alternative fuels and improved technologies. Reductions in black carbon also bring health benefits, since this substance leads to pulmonary diseases. Story 1: Ice Core Data from Svalbard “The inner part of a 125 m deep ice core from Holtedahlfonna glacier (79◦8 N, 13◦2 E, 1150 m a.s.l.) was melted, filtered through a quartz fibre filter and analysed for EC using a thermal–optical method. The EC values started to increase after 1850 and peaked around 1910, similar to ice core records from Greenland. Strikingly, the EC values again increase rapidly between 1970 and 2004 after a temporary low point around 1970, reaching unprecedented values in the 1990s. This rise is not seen in Greenland ice cores, and it seems to contradict atmospheric BC measurements indicating generally decreasing atmospheric BC concentrations since 1989 in the Arctic.” Read more about this research here.   Story 2: Black Carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau “Black carbon (BC) particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions 5 and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source–receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. ” Read more about this research here.   Story 3: Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impacts “Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high.” Read more about this research here.   Spread the...

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Major Conference Attracts Continuing Attention to Black Carbon

Posted by on Nov 28, 2014 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics, Uncategorized | 0 comments

Major Conference Attracts Continuing Attention to Black Carbon

Spread the News:ShareThis past month, the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) and the Nepalese Ministry of Science, Technology, and Environment hosted the International Conference on Mountain People Adapting to Climate Change. The large attendance and extensive coverage of this conference brought a great deal of attention for the Hindu Kush Himalaya region and its specific climate vulnerability. One of the central topics of discussion during the conference was the effect of black carbon deposits on the region’s glaciers. Although there is some lingering uncertainty about the precise magnitude and reach of the effects of this substance, members of the conference agreed that evidence is sufficient to begin the creation of  goals to reduce it in the near future. Building #climateresilience for mountain people http://t.co/eEwt5aCnH3 @icimod pic.twitter.com/O5o1hES6ue — UNFCCC (@UN_ClimateTalks) November 13, 2014 Reaching this consensus is important, because the Hindu Kush Himalaya range is essential to the health of the greater Asian continent. The range spans eight countries, covers 3 million square kilometers, and is the source of ten of Asia’s major river systems. The effects of black carbon on the region’s glaciers could have broadly negative consequences for ecosystems and livelihoods. Black carbon has a double impact. Primarily, it darkens snow and ice. The dark color allows more sunlight to be absorbed by the snow and ice, which increases melting. Secondarily, black carbon is an air pollutant,. Although the tiny particles do not remain in the air for long periods, they can be inhaled by humans and cause serious respiratory problems. Though they remain currently unrestricted, black carbon emissions are becoming an increasing concern in the region. Sources of black carbon in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region include cook-stoves, diesel vehicles, and the industrial burning of coal. In fact, one third of the black carbon suspended in the atmosphere hovers over India and China, and these particles cause at least 30% or more of the melting of glaciers in the region. Many of the gravest effects of black carbon have been well established in scientific literature, but some aspects of the substance remain up for debate. Nonetheless, “it is never wrong to start to reduce emissions of black carbon as soon as possible and as vigorously as possible,” concludes Dr. Arun Shrestha, Senior Climate Change Specialist at ICIMOD. Shifts to other forms of energy use could reduce black carbon significantly. We work with uncertainities, role of #science should be in reducing them, says Atiq Rahman @icimod #adaptHKH pic.twitter.com/aOct9LPSOt — Udayan Mishra (@oootheyan) November 10, 2014 The conference was a clear step toward covering these critical topics in meaningful ways. “The conference’s outcome will not change everyday life of mountain people right from tomorrow,” stated Dr. David Molden, the ICIMOD’s Director General, to Xinhuanet, “but it will help us formulate policies for better adaptation solutions.” The conference marked a shift in decision-making practices, because it brought together environmental and health experts. Their efforts are bringing black carbon to a more prominent position in adaptation planning. Spread the...

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