Posts Tagged "alaska"

Roundup: Putin’s Arctic Visit, Glacier Tours, and Pollutants

Posted by on Apr 3, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Putin’s Arctic Visit, Glacier Tours, and Pollutants

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Putin, Glacier Tours and Pollutants Vladimir Putin Visits Arctic Glacier From The Telegraph: “President Vladimir Putin on Wednesday visited an Arctic archipelago, part of Russia’s efforts to reaffirm its foothold in the oil-rich region. On a tour of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, a sprawling collection of islands where the Russian military has recently built a new runway and worked to open a permanent base, Mr Putin emphasized the need to protect Russia’s economic and security interests in the Arctic… During the visit, Putin inspected a cavity in a glacier that scientists use to study permafrost. He also spoke with environmental experts who have worked to clean the area of Soviet-era debris.” Read more about Putin’s glacier tour here.   Fees Charged to Visit Alaskan Glacier From adn.com: “Matanuska Glacier is the most user-friendly glacier in Alaska — one of few major ice sheets in the world that visitors can drive to and explore on foot. The glacier sits along a scenic stretch of the Glenn Highway about two hours from Anchorage, a frozen river sprawling almost 30 miles from the 13,000-foot heights of the Chugach Mountains to a toe hundreds of feet deep and miles wide that offers unique glimpses of usually buried formations. The only road-accessible route to the ice is through property owned by Matanuska Glacier Park LLC… Before November, a tour was just one option for glacier-goers who wanted to spend several hours with a guide on a trail that loops past frozen caves, tunnels and canyons and avoids hidden crevasses, water-filled pits or holes that can descend hundreds of feet into the ice. But that month, Matanuska Glacier Park began requiring any first-time winter visitor without glacier travel experience to pay for a tour — like it or not.” Learn more about the new fees here.   Downward Trend of Organic Pollutants in Antarctica From Chemosphere: “Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition… In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere.” Read more about organic pollutants here.   Spread the...

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How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Posted by on Dec 29, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Art/Culture, Communities, Featured Posts | 0 comments

How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Spread the News:ShareIndigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities face social and environmental challenges that could impact their traditional knowledge systems and livelihoods, decreasing their adaptive capacity to climate change. In a paper featured in Ecology and Society, Nicole Herman-Mercer et al. discuss recent research that took place during an interdisciplinary project called Strategic Needs of Water on the Yukon (SNOWY). The project focused on how indigenous communities in the Lower Yukon River Basin and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta regions of Alaska interpret climate change. Global warming has had a significant impact on these regions, with mean annual temperatures increasing 1.7°C over the past 60 years, according to the study. Rising temperatures are predicted to further change water chemistry, alter permafrost distribution, and increase glacier melt. These changes have had a massive impact on the residents living in the Yukon River Basin and their indigenous knowledge, as well as on the basin itself. For example, the basin’s largest glacier, the Llewellyn Glacier, has had a major contribution to increased runoff.  With environments changing at an ever-rapid pace around the world, more studies have begun to focus on indigenous knowledge and climate change vulnerability. Scientists believe it is important to understand indigenous culture because indigenous knowledge informs perceptions of environmental change and impacts how communities interpret and respond to risk. The focus of previous studies in the Arctic and Subarctic had been on older generations in the community, whose observations help shape historical baseline records of weather and climate. These records are frequently missing or incomplete. However, as Herman-Mercer et al. explain, the role of younger generations in indigenous Yukon communities is often overlooked, despite younger people driving community adaptation efforts in response to climate change. Additionally, Kusilvak County, Alaska, where Herman-Mercer et al. focused their study, has a median age of 21.9 years, which makes it the youngest county in the United States. During the project, Herman-Mercer et al. studied four villages with populations under 1,000 people. These villages are home to the native Alaska communities of the Yup’ik and Cup’ik peoples, named for the two main dialects of the Yup’ik language. These indigenous communities are traditionally subsistence-based, with the availability of game and fish, such as moose, salmon, and seals, determining the location of seasonal camps and villages. Herman-Mercer et al. interviewed residents to better understand the communities’ observations of climate change and relationship with the environment. For example, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people traditionally believe in a reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment, which influences how they view natural disasters and climate change. Rather than seeing these events as naturally occurring, the communities believe that environmental events are punishment for improper human behavior. As a result, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people have cautionary tales of past famines and poor harvest seasons caused by immoral behavior. These tales also contain information on how to survive hardships using specific codes of conduct. Herman-Mercer et al. relied on three methods to obtain interview participants for the study. First, the researchers had local partners and facilitators recruit members of the communities who were seen as experts. Then a community dinner was held in order to introduce the research team and SNOWY to the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people. Lastly, the researchers used a “snowball” approach in which the team encouraged participants to recommend other people for the study. Nicole Herman-Mercer explained to GlacierHub that all but two of the interviews were conducted in English. For the two remaining interviews, a translator was used. In order to avoid influencing answers, the researchers refrained from using the phrase “climate change” when speaking with the Yup’ik and...

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Photo Friday: The Glacial Alaska Range

Posted by on Dec 23, 2016 in All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, Images, Tourism | 0 comments

Photo Friday: The Glacial Alaska Range

Spread the News:ShareThe Alaska Range is a narrow, 700-kilometer mountain range defined by rugged peaks and large U-shaped glacial valleys. The range lies in the southeast corridor of Alaska and is home to Denali, the tallest peak in North America. The Alaska range is part of the American Cordillera and possesses peaks only trumped by those in the Himalayas and Andes. For many decades, the Alaska Range has played host to an incredible variety of landscapes and ecology, with visitors traveling from all over the world to hike, climb and sight see in Denali National Park. One-sixth of Denali National Park, or approximately one million acres, is covered by glaciers, which transport thousands of tons of ice each year, according to the National Park Service. Take a look at GlacierHub’s collection of images of Alaska’s impressive peaks and low valleys shaped by glacial activity over the past million years.                 Spread the...

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A New Technique to Study Seals Habitats in Alaska

Posted by on Dec 20, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

A New Technique to Study Seals Habitats in Alaska

Spread the News:ShareThere are numerous harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) living in tidewater glacier fjords in Alaska. Harbor seals are covered with short, stiff, bristle-like hair. They reach five to six feet (1.7-1.9 m) in length and weigh up to 300 pounds (140 kg). Tidewater glaciers calve icebergs into the marine environment, which then serve as pupping and molting habitat for harbor seals in Alaska. Although tidewater glaciers are naturally dynamic, advancing and retreating in response to local climatic and fjord conditions, most of the ice sheets that feed tidewater glaciers in Alaska are thinning. As a result, many of the tidewater glaciers are retreating. Scientists are studying the glacier ice and distribution of harbor seals to understand how future changes in tidewater glaciers may impact the harbor seals.  Jamie Womble, a marine ecologist based in Alaska, is one of them. As Womble put in her recently published paper in PLOS One, “The availability and spatial distribution of glacier ice in the fjords is likely a key environmental variable that influences the abundance and distribution of selected marine mammals; however, the amount of ice and the fine-scale characteristics of ice in fjords have not been systematically quantified. Given the predicted changes in glacier habitat, there is a need for the development of methods that could be broadly applied to quantify changes in available ice habitat in tidewater glacier fjords.” To conduct her research, Womble has used a variety of analytical tools including geospatial modeling (GIS), multivariate statistics, and animal movement models to integrate behavioral and diet data with remotely-sensed oceanographic data. Most recently, she has worked with object-based image analysis (OBIA). “OBIA is a powerful image classification tool. Many people studying forests and urban areas use it,” Anupma Prakash, a colleague of Womble and professor of geophysics at the University of Alaska, told GlacierHub. “In our case, we could not use the satellite images because the satellite images did not have the details we required. We flew our aircraft quite low so we saw a lot of detail and could identify individual icebergs.” OBIA offers an enhanced ability to quantify the morphological properties of habitat. Satellite imagery, on the other hand, is not a viable method in Alaska as there are few cloud free days.   “We wanted to classify our images into water, iceberg, and brash-ice (small pieces of ice and water all smushed together),” Prakash added. “The color and smoothness of water helped us isolate it. For icebergs the color, shape, and angular nature helped us isolate it, and the rest was bash-ice.” So it is now feasible to quantify fine-scale features of habitats in order to understand the relationships between wildlife and the habitats they use. Thanks to the work of scientists like Womble and Prakash, OBIA can now be applied to quantify changes in available ice habitat in tidewater glacier fjords. The method can also introduced in other geographic areas, according to professor Prakash.  Now that there is a more advanced method to study the harbor seals in Alaska, the hope is that other researchers will use the OBIA method to make further discoveries about key ocean habitats. Spread the...

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Photo Friday: Benchmark Glaciers in the USA

Posted by on Nov 11, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images, Science | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Benchmark Glaciers in the USA

Spread the News:ShareGlaciers contain about three quarters of the world’s fresh water and cover about 75,000 square kilometers of the U.S. The United States Geological Service (USGS) has been running the Benchmark Glacier program since the late 1950s to track glacier mass balance. Repeat measurements at four selected sites are used in conjunction with local meteorological and runoff data to measure the glaciers’ response to climate change. Results from South Cascade Glacier in Washington and Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers in Alaska provide the longest continuous record of North American glacier mass balance. In 2005, Sperry Glacier in Montana was added to the program, allowing changes in glacier mass in the principal North American climate zones to be tracked. South Cascade Glacier in Washington experiences some of the highest precipitation levels in the lower 48 states of the USA, exceeding 4500mm per annum in some places. Data was first collected from this glacier in 1959.       Gulkana Glacier can be found along the southern flank of the eastern Alaska range. It experiences a continental climate, with large temperature ranges and precipitation that is more irregular and lighter than that experienced in coastal areas.         Wolverine Glacier is also located in Alaska, but is found in the Kenai Mountains on the coast. The maritime climate has low temperature variability and regular, heavy precipitation. Data collection at both Gulkana and Wolverine glaciers began in 1966.         Sperry Glacier is located in the Lewis Range of Glacier National Park in Montana. The climate of the region is influenced by both maritime and continental air masses, but Pacific storm systems dominate. These systems result in moderate temperatures and heavy precipitation, which vary strongly with altitude.     Spread the...

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