Roundup

Roundup: Brown Haze, A Glacier Song, and Adventure Sixty North

Posted by on May 1, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Brown Haze, A Glacier Song, and Adventure Sixty North

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: A Video, A Glacier Song and Pollution Glacier Retreat from Rick Brown’s Perspective From Vimeo: In the video “Glacier Exit” by Raphael Rogers, Rick Brown, owner of Adventure Sixty North, takes viewers on a glacier ice hike. Rick has been guiding tours in Seward, Alaska, since the early 1990s. On this particular tour, Rick points out areas where the glaciers have been retreating at a rate of 150 feet per year. This retreat, which used to take hundreds of years, now only takes a year or two and is resulting in visible wildlife changes. The video quotes Lord Byron – “I love not Man the less, but Nature more.” Watch the stunning video “Glacier Exit” here.   Brown Haze Particles Over the Himalayas From Atmospheric Environment: “The Tibetan Plateau is one of the largest plateaus in the world. Its glaciers are a major source of rivers like the Indus, the Ganges and the Yangtze. Yet, the rapid pace of urbanization and industrialization along the elevated site of the Himalayas have subsequently increased the burden of atmospheric pollution (which has adversely affected the Himalayan glaciers and hence the climate system). Brown haze can consist of soot, fly ash, organic particles and various salts. Its deposition on Tibetan glaciers is an important factor responsible for rapid glacier retreat and thermal heating.” Read more about brown haze and its implications here.   Electronic Musician GLOKMIN’s New Song “Glacier” From Twitter: “Glacier” is the title of the new single by the electronic musician GLOKMIN. He is a 21-year old artist from Alexandria, Virginia, and he performs in Washington D.C. From his song, you can hear some glacier/ambient sounds coupled with lyrics such as “your heart’s a melting glacier.” The song begins with the sound of a glacier cracking and falling onto the ground below. Listen to the full song and others by this artist here.   Spread the...

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Roundup: GLOFs, Iron, and Soil Stability

Posted by on Apr 24, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: GLOFs, Iron, and Soil Stability

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: GLOFs, Iron, and Soil   Observations of a GLOF near Mt. Everest From The Cryosphere: “Glacier outburst floods with origins from Lhotse Glacier, located in the Everest region of Nepal, occurred on 25 May 2015 and 12 June 2016. The most recent event was witnessed by investigators, which provided unique insights into the magnitude, source, and triggering mechanism of the flood. The field assessment and satellite imagery analysis following the event revealed that most of the flood water was stored englacially and that the flood was likely triggered by dam failure.” Read more about the GLOF events in Nepal here.   Transfer of Iron to the Antarctic From Nature: “Iron supplied by glacial weathering results in pronounced hotspots of biological production in an otherwise iron-limited Southern Ocean Ecosystem. However, glacial iron inputs are thought to be dominated by icebergs. Here we show that surface runoff from three island groups of the maritime Antarctic exports more filterable than icebergs. Glacier-fed streams also export more acid-soluble iron associated with suspended sediment than icebergs. Significant fluxes of filterable and sediment-derived iron are therefore likely to be delivered by runoff from the Antarctic continent. Although estuarine removal processes will greatly reduce their availability to coastal ecosystems, our results clearly indicate that riverine iron fluxes need to be accounted for as the volume of Antarctic melt increases in response to 21st century climate change.” Learn more about iron transfer here.   The Role of Vegetation in Alpine Soil Stability From International Soil and Water Conservation Research: “One fifth of the world’s population is living in mountains or in their surrounding areas. This anthropogenic pressure continues to grow with the increasing number of settlements, especially in areas connected to touristic activities, such as the Italian Alps. The process of soil formation on high mountains is particularly slow and these soils are particularly vulnerable to soil degradation. In alpine regions, extreme meteorological events are increasingly frequent due to climate change, speeding up the process of soil degradation and increasing the number of severe erosion processes, shallow landslides and debris flows. Vegetation cover plays a crucial role in the stabilization of mountain soils thereby reducing the risk of natural hazards effecting downslope areas.” Read more about soil stability here. Spread the...

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Roundup: Mélange, Ice Microstructures and Ice Caps

Posted by on Apr 17, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup, Science | 0 comments

Roundup: Mélange, Ice Microstructures and Ice Caps

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Mélange, Microstructures and Ice Caps Breakup of Mélange Increases Calving From the Journal Nature Communications: “At many marine-terminating glaciers, the breakup of mélange, a floating aggregation of sea ice and icebergs, has been accompanied by an increase in iceberg calving and ice mass loss. Previous studies have argued that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. In this study, I adapt a discrete element model to explicitly simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. Simulations show that mélange laden with thick landfast sea ice produces enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice within mélange thins, the buttressing force on the terminus is reduced and calving is more likely to occur.” Read more about the study here.     Ice Microstructures and Fabrics of Guliya Ice Cap From Journal Crystals: “This work is the first in the general natural ice literature to compare microstructures and fabrics of continent-type mountain ice in mid-low latitudes with polar ice in order to find out how they evolved based on similar fabric patterns of their vertically girdles. Microstructures and fabrics along the Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau, China, were measured at a depth interval of approximately 10 m…  The thermal kinemics caused by the temperature can play a vital role in different stress cases to cast the similar or same fabric patterns. Normal grain growth, polygonization/rotation recrystallization, and migration recrystallization play roles of different importance at different depths.” Read more about the study here.   The Projected Demise of Barnes Ice Cap From American Geophysical Union: “As a remnant of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, Barnes Ice Cap owes its existence and present form in part to the climate of the last glacial period. The ice cap has been sustained in the present interglacial climate by its own topography through the mass balance-elevation feedback. A coupled mass balance and ice-flow model, forced by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate model output, projects that the current ice cap will likely disappear in the next 300 years. For greenhouse gas Representative Concentration Pathways of +2.6 to +8.5 Wm−2, the projected ice-cap survival times range from 150 to 530 years. Measured concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 14C at sites exposed near the ice-cap margin suggest the pending disappearance of Barnes Ice Cap is very unusual in the last million years. The data and models together point to an exceptionally warm 21st century Arctic climate.” Read more about the study here.   Spread the...

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Roundup: Cycling, Drones and Living Entities

Posted by on Apr 10, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Cycling, Drones and Living Entities

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Cycling, Drones and Two Glaciers   Female Cyclist’s Pioneering Ride On Biafo Glacier From The Nation: “Pakistani cyclist Samar Khan is the first women in the world to ride cycle on the 4,500 meter high Biafo Glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit Baltistan. With the passion of cycling, she raised her voice for social injustice and created awareness in the community to change the perception of people related to adventure sports and to bring the ‘Cycling Revolution’ to Pakistan like other countries to lessen the accidents, pollution and to bring healthy lifestyle.” Read an interview with Khan here.     Monitoring Glacier Dynamics Using Drones From The Cryosphere: “The glaciers of the Cordillera Blanca Peru are rapidly retreating as a result of climate change, altering timing, quantity and quality of water available to downstream users. Furthermore, increases in the number and size of proglacial lakes associated with these melting glaciers is increasing potential exposure to glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs)… Most satellite data are too coarse for studying small mountain glaciers and are often affected by cloud cover, while traditional airborne photogrammetry and LiDAR are costly. Recent developments have made Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) a viable and potentially transformative method for studying glacier change at high spatial resolution, on demand and at relatively low cost. Using a custom designed hexacopter built for high altitude (4000 – 6000 masl) operation we completed repeat aerial surveys (2014 and 2015) of the debris covered Llaca glacier tongue and proglacial lake system.” Learn more about using drones to study glacier dynamics here.   Two Glaciers Given Legal Status From Times of India: “Ten days after it declared the rivers Ganga and Yamuna as ‘living entities’, Uttarakhand high court (HC) on Friday declared the glaciers from where the two rivers originate, Gangotri and Yamunotri respectively, as legal entities as well. The order delivered by Justices Rajiv Sharma and Alok Singh, who had also passed the order on the two rivers on March 20, said that the glaciers will have “the status of a legal person, with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person.” This, the court said, was being done “in order to preserve and conserve them.” Read more about the two glaciers here. Spread the...

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Roundup: Putin’s Arctic Visit, Glacier Tours, and Pollutants

Posted by on Apr 3, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Putin’s Arctic Visit, Glacier Tours, and Pollutants

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Putin, Glacier Tours and Pollutants Vladimir Putin Visits Arctic Glacier From The Telegraph: “President Vladimir Putin on Wednesday visited an Arctic archipelago, part of Russia’s efforts to reaffirm its foothold in the oil-rich region. On a tour of the Franz Josef Land archipelago, a sprawling collection of islands where the Russian military has recently built a new runway and worked to open a permanent base, Mr Putin emphasized the need to protect Russia’s economic and security interests in the Arctic… During the visit, Putin inspected a cavity in a glacier that scientists use to study permafrost. He also spoke with environmental experts who have worked to clean the area of Soviet-era debris.” Read more about Putin’s glacier tour here.   Fees Charged to Visit Alaskan Glacier From adn.com: “Matanuska Glacier is the most user-friendly glacier in Alaska — one of few major ice sheets in the world that visitors can drive to and explore on foot. The glacier sits along a scenic stretch of the Glenn Highway about two hours from Anchorage, a frozen river sprawling almost 30 miles from the 13,000-foot heights of the Chugach Mountains to a toe hundreds of feet deep and miles wide that offers unique glimpses of usually buried formations. The only road-accessible route to the ice is through property owned by Matanuska Glacier Park LLC… Before November, a tour was just one option for glacier-goers who wanted to spend several hours with a guide on a trail that loops past frozen caves, tunnels and canyons and avoids hidden crevasses, water-filled pits or holes that can descend hundreds of feet into the ice. But that month, Matanuska Glacier Park began requiring any first-time winter visitor without glacier travel experience to pay for a tour — like it or not.” Learn more about the new fees here.   Downward Trend of Organic Pollutants in Antarctica From Chemosphere: “Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition… In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere.” Read more about organic pollutants here.   Spread the...

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Roundup: Karakoram, Dust and Prokaryotes

Posted by on Mar 27, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Karakoram, Dust and Prokaryotes

Spread the News:ShareRoundup:  Karakoram, Ice Core, and Chile   Karakoram Glaciers in Balance From the Journal of Glaciology: “An anomalously slight glacier mass gain during 2000 to the 2010s has recently been reported in the Karakoram region. We calculated elevation and mass change using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from KH-9 (a series of satellites) images acquired during 1973–1980… Within the Karakoram, the glacier change patterns are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In particular, a nearly stable state in the central Karakoram (−0.04 ± 0.05 m w.e. a−1 during the period 1974–2000) implies that the Karakoram anomaly dates back to the 1970s. Combined with the previous studies, we conclude that the Karakoram glaciers as a whole were in a nearly balanced state during the 1970s to the 2010s.” Read more about this study here.   Dust in Ice Core Reflects the Last Deglaciation From Quaternary Science Reviews: “The chemical and physical characterization of the dust record preserved in ice cores is useful for identifying of dust source regions, dust transport, dominant wind direction and storm trajectories. Here, we present a 50,000-year geochemical characterization of mineral dust entrapped in a horizontal ice core from the Taylor Glacier in East Antarctica. Strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes, grain size distribution, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations, and inorganic ion (Cl− and Na+) concentrations were measured in 38 samples, corresponding to a time interval from 46 kyr before present (BP) to present… This study provides the first high time resolution data showing variations in dust provenance to East Antarctic ice during a major climate regime shift, and we provide evidence of changes in the atmospheric transport pathways of dust following the last deglaciation.” Read more about the findings here.   Prokaryotic Communities in Patagonian Lakes From Current Microbiology: “The prokaryotic (microscopic single-celled organisms without a distinct nucleus with a membrane or other specialized organelles) abundance and diversity in three cold, oligotrophic Patagonian lakes (Témpanos, Las Torres and Mercedes) in the northern region Aysén (Chile) were compared in winter and summer…Prokaryotic abundances, numerically dominated by Bacteria, were quite similar in the three lakes, but higher in sediments than in waters, and they were also higher in summer than in winter… The prokaryotic community composition at Témpanos lake, located most northerly and closer to a glacier, greatly differed in respect to the other two lakes. In this lake was detected the highest bacterial diversity… Our results indicate that the proximity to the glacier and the seasonality shape the composition of the prokaryotic communities in these remote lakes. These results may be used as baseline information to follow the microbial community responses to potential global changes and to anthropogenic impacts.” Read more about the results here. Spread the...

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