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No-Fly Zone Administered Over Glacier Crash Site

Posted by on May 24, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News | 0 comments

No-Fly Zone Administered Over Glacier Crash Site

Spread the News:ShareIn 1952, a military plane crashed into Mount Gannett, 50 miles east of Anchorage, killing all 52 service members on board. The plane was located in 2012 at Colony Glacier, but it has taken years to retrieve the remains as rescuers can only travel to the crash site in June, when conditions are safest on the glacier. Over this time, the receding glacier has made the crash site more visible, but it has also enticed sightseers on helicopters, who risk disturbing the remains or removing artifacts. As a result, a no-fly zone has been administered this month by the Federal Aviation Administration to stop people from disturbing the crash site. To date, 35 human remains have been repatriated, but it may take several more years to retrieve the remaining 17. The plane went down in the Chugach Mountain range, one of the snowiest locations in Alaska. During the winter of 1952-1953, in the Chugach’s Thompson Pass, a record 81 feet of snow was recorded. Colony Glacier remains dangerous due to deep crevasses, variable weather and sharp pieces of ice. Douglas C-124 Globemaster II, "Old Shaky," was built in Long Beach, CA. Could carry 68,500 lb of cargo. #avgeek #lift pic.twitter.com/WURPDu4NvL — SDASM L&A (@SDASM_archives) September 4, 2014 Erin Pettit, an associate professor of glaciology at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, told GlacierHub about similar plane crashes that have been buried beneath glaciers. “There are a handful around the world – at least one in Greenland and one in Antarctica. Sometimes they weren’t ‘lost’ in the sense that no one knew what happened, but they just couldn’t extract the plane,” she said. “The plane was absorbed by the glacier and won’t re-emerge for hundreds or even thousands of years, depending on where it landed and how big the glacier is.” When a plane crashes into a glacier, it is covered by snowfall and over time freezes into the glacier. When the glacier moves downslope, the plane moves along with it, until it is later revealed at the front of the glacier. Warmer temperatures speed this process up. Bob McNabb, a glaciologist at the University of Alaska, calculated the speed and trajectory of the flowpath of the Colony Glacier and made a map for GlacierHub. Using a back-of-the-envelope calculation, McNabb said the plane traveled 23 kilometers along the flowpath, which means it would have traveled one meter per year. Using this analysis, which involved the use of satellites, McNabb calculated that the average surface velocity would have been about 1.5 meters per year. Michael Loso, a physical scientist at Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, told GlacierHub that Colony Glacier has a velocity of about 3 feet per day, saying, “That’s fast but not unreasonably fast for a big Alaskan glacier.” Alaska has a higher rate of plane crashes than the rest of the United States for reasons like frequent inclement weather, jagged terrain, which can be obscured by clouds, and the fact that flying is the only way to get to certain remote places. The cause of the 1952 crash has never been determined. Loso added that such crashes at glaciers are not that uncommon, saying, “Many glaciers are in mountains, and planes run into mountains every once in awhile.” Colony Glacier Chugach State Park Alaska pic.twitter.com/9FRYV8svnH — Mark Stadsklev (@artwithinnature) April 18, 2017 Spread the...

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Don’t Step on the Crack at Petermann Glacier

Posted by on May 18, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

Don’t Step on the Crack at Petermann Glacier

Spread the News:ShareCracks in ice shelves have appeared in disaster movies as ominous signs of global warming. One memorable instance occurs in The Day After Tomorrow when a paleoclimatologist is drilling ice cores at the Larsen Ice Shelf. The shelf breaks apart, leading to a series of cataclysmic climate events that disrupt the North Atlantic Ocean circulation. In July, a real- life crack appeared at Petermann Glacier in Greenland and has been growing steadily ever since. Two scientists, Andreas Muenchow and Keith Nicholls, are investigating the crack and hypothesize that it is caused by an increase in air and ocean temperatures. Petermann Glacier connects the Greenland ice sheet to the Arctic Ocean at 81°N. It is approximately 43 miles long and nearly 10 miles wide. This is not the first crack or full break of ice at Petermann Glacier, according to a Washington Post article by Chris Mooney. Since 2010, entire slabs of the Petermann glacier have broken off. In fact, during two occasions, the glacier lost an area of ice six times the size of Manhattan, according to Mooney. This loss raises enormous concern because the glacier serves to slow down the flow of ice downhill from the Greenland ice sheet into the ocean. For this reason, experts call Petermann a “floodgate.” If the glacier that sits behind Petermann melts, it could raise sea levels by about a foot. A recent paper published in the Geophysical Research Letters describes this type of calving at Petermann as common. The authors explain that it is usually assumed that ocean-ice dynamics are not involved. However, evidence from the Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica found that ocean forcing can play a role in the melting. Muenchow and Nicholls expect similar dynamics are occurring with Petermann Glacier. They have been on several expeditions to the glacier in order to measure ocean temperatures underneath the shelf itself. They want to see if rising ocean temperatures are also detrimental to the glacier and causing the melting from below. If warm ocean water were melting the base of the glacier, it would only accelerate the destruction of Petermann. While it is extremely difficult to know definitively, they hypothesize Petermann’s river and the channel beneath it are playing a role in the melting. Data from 2015 and 2016 demonstrates that the temperatures of the warm Atlantic layer in the ocean have increased. With both air and ocean temperatures getting warmer, it is unclear how much longer Petermann Glacier will be intact, leaving frightening implications for the melting of the enormous glacier behind it. The crack in the Petermann Glacier and the possible ensuing events show that news from the ice can sometimes be just as scary as the scenes in disaster movies. Spread the...

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A Visit to the Source of a Recent Glacier Flood in Nepal

Posted by on May 17, 2017 in All Posts, Classroom Hub, Featured Posts, Interviews, News | 0 comments

A Visit to the Source of a Recent Glacier Flood in Nepal

Spread the News:ShareAlton Byers discussed a recent glacier hazard in Nepal with GlacierHub. Byers is a senior research associate at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado and co-manager of High Mountains Adaptation Partnership (HiMAP). He has been recognized as an Explorer by National Geographic. The account below is based on interviews with Byers and emails from Dhananjay Regmi, a geographer at Tribhuvan University in Kathmandu. On May 2, Daene McKinney, Dhananjay Regmi and Alton Byers flew from Dingboche over the Sherpani Col and into the upper Barun valley in the eastern Himalayas of Nepal in an effort to determine the source of an April 20 flood. Dorje Sherpa, a resident of Yangle Kharka, reported that the lake burst around 1 p.m., flooding down the Barun River, and reached his village about a half-hour later. The settlements of Langmale, Zak Kharka and Rephuk Kharka remained largely undamaged, as did lodges in the area, but Yangle Kharka suffered a loss of at least three buildings and many hectares of valuable grazing land. Tematang, further downstream, is located on a high terrace and was fortunately spared damage. However, all local bridges were washed away. The flood arrived at the confluence of the Barun and Arun Rivers around 4 p.m., where the debris dammed the Arun River, forming a temporary lake 2-3 km long. This setting is remote, a two-day walk from the district capital of Khandbari. The lake presented a serious threat, since it would have created a second, more destructive flood in the densely populated areas downstream had it breached the dam. The government response was swift. Police reached the site on the morning of April 21 and started to plan how to protect the endangered communities. Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Home Affairs Bimalendra Nidhi issued a directive to open the dam in order to reduce the threat of flooding. The Natural Disaster Rescue Committee, an organization within the Nepali Ministry of Home Affairs, met in Kathmandu to discuss the situation. Fortunately, the lake began to drain spontaneously around 2 p.m. on April 21, with some local flooding below, but far less than was feared. Rather than originating in the Lower Barun glacial lake or as a result of heavy rains and flooded tributaries, as some surmised, the flood’s trigger appears to have been two surficial glacial lakes on the Langmale Glacier just east of the Langmale settlement area, most likely supplemented by englacial conduit and subglacial conduit, as in the Lhotse glacier flood Byers observed and recorded last June. The combined volume of water cascaded over the Langmale’s terminal moraine, creating a huge torrent that picked up more material and debris as it cascaded down the Barun River channel, carving out massive new river channels and flooding large areas of grazing and forest land. Regmi and Byers spoke with 16 villagers in Yangle Kharka, who said that they would be rebuilding them and returning home soon. The villagers expressed deep concern about the impacts of the flood on the coming tourist season. The damaged trails and bridges make it difficult for local porters and foreign trekkers to reach the region, and the dramatically changed landscapes, with landslide scars, are less visually appealing to tourists. McKinney, Regmi and Byers were only able to fly another 10 km or so down valley because of fuel shortages before returning to the upper Barun and Khumbu, but they noticed another very large and fresh torrent scar on the right bank of the Barun. They plan to study it as well and learn more about its possible role in...

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Samar Khan Becomes First Woman to Cycle on Biafo Glacier

Posted by on May 11, 2017 in All Posts, Experiences, Featured Posts, Interviews, News, Sports, Tourism | 0 comments

Samar Khan Becomes First Woman to Cycle on Biafo Glacier

Spread the News:ShareIn August 2016, Samar Khan, 26, became the first woman to cycle 800 kilometers to reach the Biafo Glacier in northern Pakistan, where she then rode at an elevation of 4,500 m on top of the glacier. Accomplishing one of the highest glacier rides in the world, she proved that glaciers can draw attention to some of society’s most entrenched issues, from climate change to women’s rights. “In order to change the mindsets of our people, I chose to cycle on glaciers,” Khan told GlacierHub. “I wanted people to realize the importance of what we have, how to preserve it, and what our duties are toward these majestic landmarks.” Khan reached Biafo Glacier after 15 days of cycling from Islamabad to Skardu, becoming the first Pakistani to accomplish the feat. She was accompanied by other cyclists at various times during her journey and was honored upon her arrival by the sports board of Gilgit-Baltistan. Prior to the Biafo trip, she had previously covered 1,000 km, cycling from Islamabad to the Pakistan-Chinese border.  Biafo Glacier, the third longest glacier outside the polar regions, required Kahn to disassemble her bike and carry the parts, helped by porters, for four or five days up ice and snow to reach the remote glacier before riding it. She camped near the glacier in dangerously cold conditions, telling Images, a Pakistani magazine, “Camping on the glacier was not easy. I was so cold that I couldn’t sleep and later slept with the porters in a cramped space.” Recognizing that climate change is impacting the glaciers, Khan plans to keep cycling. “I will be cycling on other glaciers, summiting peaks, and documenting it all to create awareness about climate change and its effect on our environment,” she said. “I am going for a peak summit of 6,250 m in Arandu (Karakoram Range), Skardu, and Gilgit-Baltistan on May 14th.” Gilgit-Baltistan is a mountainous administrative territory of Pakistan, home to five peaks of at least 8,000 m in height. Sadaffe Abid, co-founder of CIRCLE, a Pakistan-based women’s rights group focused on improving women’s socioeconomic status, talked to GlacierHub about Ms. Khan’s achievement. “It’s not common at all. It’s very challenging. For a Pakistani women, it is very unusual, as women don’t ride bicycles or motorbikes. Their mobility is extremely constrained. So, it’s a big deal and its setting new milestones,” she said. “I am the first Pak girl to break stereotypes and cycle to northern Pakistan,” Samar Khan told CIRCLE in an interview posted on Facebook. Khan has faced sexism and violence by going against the norms in Pakistan. She recounted a story to CIRCLE about her engagement to a man. When she met his family, they gave her a list of demands including not speaking Pashto and not using social media or her cell phone. When she refused, she was beaten and thrown out of a car. She ended up in the ICU and became depressed before eventually finding cycling. “Steps taken like this boost the confidence of other ladies in underprivileged areas and make them aware about their basic rights,” Khan said. “It makes them realize their strengths and capabilities. The change begins when they start trusting themselves instead of listening to the patriarchal society.” Khan told GlacierHub that she also faced criticism and disbelief of her accomplishment from other sources. “There was a trekking community who criticized my way of exploring Biafo Glacier, the most challenging and rough terrain for trekkers. I was going there on my cycle, which was really hard for them to accept,” she said. “But the mainstream media supported my...

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Meltdown in Canadian Ice Core Facility

Posted by on May 4, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News | 1 comment

Meltdown in Canadian Ice Core Facility

Spread the News:ShareThe Canadian Ice Core Archive in Edmonton, run by the University of Alberta, recently lost almost 13 percent of their ice cores in a perfect storm of system and equipment failures. The freezer containing thousands of precious ice core samples malfunctioned one weekend in April and the alert that was meant to sound if the freezer failed also faulted. To make matters worse, the system then tried to correct itself, which meant it blew hot air into the room, accelerating the melting of the cores. The temperature in the room rose so high that it set off the fire alarm in the building. Ice cores at the Canadian Ice Core Archive are typically kept at -37°C. But over the weekend, temperatures increased to upwards of 40°C, leaving inches of water on the floor by Monday morning. In the meltdown, the archive lost some of its oldest and most precious ice cores from Northern Canada that glaciologists have been collecting since the 1970s. In total, 4,000 ice core samples were destroyed overnight, sending ripples of concern through the science community. 'Invaluable' ancient Arctic ice cores damaged by freezer failure at University of Alberta. Temperatures reach 40C. https://t.co/ieDZnsDuQF — William Colgan (@GlacierBytes) April 7, 2017 The lost ice cores held 22,000 years of data within their layers and came from such diverse locations as Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada, and Baffin Island’s Penny Ice Cap, among other locations. It is no surprise that climate scientists and glaciologists value ice core data for what it can tell us about past climate. Glaciers start as layers of snow, which slowly accumulates, forming ice. Dust, pollen, and bubbles of trapped air in each layer of snow becomes a part of the ice. Ice cores are drilled samples of these layers, each sample telling a story of historical atmospheric and temperature conditions. Thus, storage of ice cores in repositories is extremely important. Replacing the 4,000 lost ice cores in Edmonton is essentially out of the question. Each sample would cost upwards of $1 million dollars to replace and presents massive logistical issues in obtaining new ones due to the remote location of the Arctic. The process of drilling ice cores is extremely time consuming and technically demanding. Ice cores are either drilled with a thermal or mechanical drill, and samples range from one to six meters in length.  It seems the only way forward from this ice core catastrophe is to ensure that the Canadian Ice Core Archive does not have another failure. This involves sharing lessons learned from this incident and other ice core repositories. In times like these, the last thing the world needs is more lost climate data. Fortunately, the archive’s oldest ice from the last continental ice sheet was not in the malfunctioning freezer, a small wrinkle in an otherwise tragic tale.   Spread the...

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Roundup: Brown Haze, A Glacier Song, and Adventure Sixty North

Posted by on May 1, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Brown Haze, A Glacier Song, and Adventure Sixty North

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: A Video, A Glacier Song and Pollution Glacier Retreat from Rick Brown’s Perspective From Vimeo: In the video “Glacier Exit” by Raphael Rogers, Rick Brown, owner of Adventure Sixty North, takes viewers on a glacier ice hike. Rick has been guiding tours in Seward, Alaska, since the early 1990s. On this particular tour, Rick points out areas where the glaciers have been retreating at a rate of 150 feet per year. This retreat, which used to take hundreds of years, now only takes a year or two and is resulting in visible wildlife changes. The video quotes Lord Byron – “I love not Man the less, but Nature more.” Watch the stunning video “Glacier Exit” here.   Brown Haze Particles Over the Himalayas From Atmospheric Environment: “The Tibetan Plateau is one of the largest plateaus in the world. Its glaciers are a major source of rivers like the Indus, the Ganges and the Yangtze. Yet, the rapid pace of urbanization and industrialization along the elevated site of the Himalayas have subsequently increased the burden of atmospheric pollution (which has adversely affected the Himalayan glaciers and hence the climate system). Brown haze can consist of soot, fly ash, organic particles and various salts. Its deposition on Tibetan glaciers is an important factor responsible for rapid glacier retreat and thermal heating.” Read more about brown haze and its implications here.   Electronic Musician GLOKMIN’s New Song “Glacier” From Twitter: “Glacier” is the title of the new single by the electronic musician GLOKMIN. He is a 21-year old artist from Alexandria, Virginia, and he performs in Washington D.C. From his song, you can hear some glacier/ambient sounds coupled with lyrics such as “your heart’s a melting glacier.” The song begins with the sound of a glacier cracking and falling onto the ground below. Listen to the full song and others by this artist here.   Spread the...

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