Art/Culture

Photo Friday: Historic Images of Glaciers

Posted by on Dec 30, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Historic Images of Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareThe National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) advances scientific research on the frozen areas of the Earth, known as the crysophere, and the climate that influences them. Founded in 1976, the center manages a data archive and educates the public about the cryosphere, including the world’s glaciers. Scientists of the NSIDC specialize in collecting data through remote sensing, which is the process of using satellites to observe information. The center was originally formed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) to hold archives from NOAA’s programs. Today, the NSIDC is housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, where it continues to be the leader of cryospheric data management. The photographs held by the NSIDC date back to the mid-1800s and include images of glaciers in Europe, South America, the Himalayas, Antarctica and elsewhere. As of 2010, the searchable, online collection has over 15,000 photos of glaciers, which serve as important historical records for researchers and scientists studying the impacts of climate change. Take a look at GlacierHub’s compilation of photographs from the database. To view more historic images, visit the NSIDC’s Glacier Photograph Collection.                     Spread the...

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How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Posted by on Dec 29, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Art/Culture, Communities, Featured Posts | 0 comments

How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Spread the News:ShareIndigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities face social and environmental challenges that could impact their traditional knowledge systems and livelihoods, decreasing their adaptive capacity to climate change. In a paper featured in Ecology and Society, Nicole Herman-Mercer et al. discuss recent research that took place during an interdisciplinary project called Strategic Needs of Water on the Yukon (SNOWY). The project focused on how indigenous communities in the Lower Yukon River Basin and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta regions of Alaska interpret climate change. Global warming has had a significant impact on these regions, with mean annual temperatures increasing 1.7°C over the past 60 years, according to the study. Rising temperatures are predicted to further change water chemistry, alter permafrost distribution, and increase glacier melt. These changes have had a massive impact on the residents living in the Yukon River Basin and their indigenous knowledge, as well as on the basin itself. For example, the basin’s largest glacier, the Llewellyn Glacier, has had a major contribution to increased runoff.  With environments changing at an ever-rapid pace around the world, more studies have begun to focus on indigenous knowledge and climate change vulnerability. Scientists believe it is important to understand indigenous culture because indigenous knowledge informs perceptions of environmental change and impacts how communities interpret and respond to risk. The focus of previous studies in the Arctic and Subarctic had been on older generations in the community, whose observations help shape historical baseline records of weather and climate. These records are frequently missing or incomplete. However, as Herman-Mercer et al. explain, the role of younger generations in indigenous Yukon communities is often overlooked, despite younger people driving community adaptation efforts in response to climate change. Additionally, Kusilvak County, Alaska, where Herman-Mercer et al. focused their study, has a median age of 21.9 years, which makes it the youngest county in the United States. During the project, Herman-Mercer et al. studied four villages with populations under 1,000 people. These villages are home to the native Alaska communities of the Yup’ik and Cup’ik peoples, named for the two main dialects of the Yup’ik language. These indigenous communities are traditionally subsistence-based, with the availability of game and fish, such as moose, salmon, and seals, determining the location of seasonal camps and villages. Herman-Mercer et al. interviewed residents to better understand the communities’ observations of climate change and relationship with the environment. For example, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people traditionally believe in a reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment, which influences how they view natural disasters and climate change. Rather than seeing these events as naturally occurring, the communities believe that environmental events are punishment for improper human behavior. As a result, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people have cautionary tales of past famines and poor harvest seasons caused by immoral behavior. These tales also contain information on how to survive hardships using specific codes of conduct. Herman-Mercer et al. relied on three methods to obtain interview participants for the study. First, the researchers had local partners and facilitators recruit members of the communities who were seen as experts. Then a community dinner was held in order to introduce the research team and SNOWY to the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people. Lastly, the researchers used a “snowball” approach in which the team encouraged participants to recommend other people for the study. Nicole Herman-Mercer explained to GlacierHub that all but two of the interviews were conducted in English. For the two remaining interviews, a translator was used. In order to avoid influencing answers, the researchers refrained from using the phrase “climate change” when speaking with the Yup’ik and...

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New Glacier App, A Finalist for Swiss App Awards

Posted by on Dec 21, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

New Glacier App, A Finalist for Swiss App Awards

Spread the News:ShareA new glacier-themed app is a finalist for this year’s Swiss App Awards, an elite competition for mobile and app developers. The wgms Glacier App gives users access to the glacier database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) right from their smartphone, with over 3,700 glaciers loaded on it. Created by the WGMS at the University of Zurich and Ubique Apps and Technology, the mobile application aims to help everyone from scientists to hikers access scientific information available on the world’s glaciers. Launched alongside the 2015 COP 21 in Paris, the app provides information such as glacial dimensions, locations, photographs and changes in glacier mass. This data is provided free of cost, and the app can be used without internet connection. Glaciers may be searched by name, country or region as well as by current “health” status. The application also includes a compass that points out nearby glaciers and a card game that tests glacier knowledge. “All data used by the app is freely available for scientific and educative purposes,” said Samuel Nussbaumer, science officer at the University of Zurich, to GlacierHub. “It is one task of the WGMS to make this data accessible. The WGMS maintains a network of local investigators and national correspondents in all countries involved in glacier monitoring.” The WGMS has been collecting data for more than 120 years with the help of its correspondents in more than 35 countries. Hosted in the University of Zurich’s Department of Geography, the WGMS is co-financed by the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss. Due to warming temperatures as a result of climate change, the world’s glaciers are rapidly receding, pushing the WGMS into the spotlight. Currently, the WGMS provides information on about 130,000 glaciers and includes facts and figures on the fluctuations of the glaciers, like ice mass, volume, length and height. In addition, information is collected by the service on ice avalanches, glacier lake outburst floods, glacier calving (when a chunk of ice suddenly breaks off from the rest of the glacier) and glacier surges (when a glacier moves 100 times faster than normal). Nico Mölg, the scientific project leader of the WGMS involved in developing the app, told GlacierHub, “With this setting we intended to make the comprehensive database more visible and the access handier. Colleagues in science use it, people in NGOs working in the climate domain use it, and non-specialists, like hikers and mountaineers, interested in the topic of climate change and changing environments also use it. At the same time, the app also provides more visibility for the people performing the actual work.” Mölg added that the app will be updated in the spring and will soon be available in French, in addition to its current languages of Spanish, German, Russian and English. The WGMS doesn’t work alone in providing this scientific data. Along with the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative, the WGMS runs the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G), which facilitates communication among the three organizations in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Best of Swiss Apps, which the glacier app was a finalist for, is an initiative started by the Swiss Internet Industry Association in 2001. It gave its award out in November to another app collaborated on by Ubique. The purpose of the award, according to the site, is to promote transparency in the industry, establish a quality of standards through professional judging, provide a young industry more attention, and offer networking opportunities. Take the Daniels...

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Photo Friday: International Mountain Day

Posted by on Dec 9, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: International Mountain Day

Spread the News:ShareIn honor of International Mountain Day on Sunday, December 11th, GlacierHub is excited to share with you our most-liked photos on Instagram. You can follow us @glacierhub for more images collected by our authors. After all, who doesn’t love amazing photos of glaciers? And don’t forget to check out more info on International Mountain Day, a global celebration of mountain life established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2003. This year’s theme is “Mountain Cultures,” celebrating diversity and strengthening identity. #MountainsMatter                    Spread the...

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Rediscovering Julius von Haast, Pioneer of Glaciology

Posted by on Dec 6, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

Rediscovering Julius von Haast, Pioneer of Glaciology

Spread the News:ShareIn the history of glaciology, New Zealand’s German-born Julius von Haast ranks as an influential but otherwise little-known pioneer. In the 19th century, Haast’s scientific explorations led him to glacier-rich areas across New Zealand where he gave names to landforms, including the well-known Franz Josef, Hooker, and Mueller Glaciers on the West Coast’s South Island. A recent report by Sascha Nolden for the Canterbury Museum strives to recognize the overlooked life and legacy of Haast, who to this day continues to influence glacier researchers around the world. “Famous? No, Julius is not famous, even today,” said Joerg Schaefer, a professor at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, to GlacierHub. “But he was indeed a great explorer and glacier geologist in New Zealand. He was not only a fellow citizen of mine, but one of my heroes.” Haast has served as a role model for modern-day scientists like Schaefer, with his work paving the way for future scientific research. “Our team has worked in New Zealand for 15 years following in Haast’s footsteps,” said Schaefer. By scrutinizing archival material such as manuscripts, letters, photographs and sketches held in the collections of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Nolden carefully rediscovered Haast’s biography, documenting Haast’s notable research, exploration, institution-building and collegial cooperation that continues to influence today’s scientists. “Haast was one of the leading New Zealand scientists of the second half of the nineteenth century,” writes Nolden, research librarian at the Alexander Turnbull Library, in his report. “He was a remarkable individual noted for his stamina and perseverance in the face of obstacles, ranging from the mountain wilderness to the tangles of provincial bureaucracy.” Born in 1822 in Bonn, Germany, Haast first studied geology and mineralogy at the University of the Rhine, although he never graduated. He later spent time in the high mountains of New Zealand in the 1860s, visiting the region’s glaciers and making original watercolor sketches of the mountains. His sketches and maps have been useful to glaciologists as they attempt to date various landforms. It was during Haast’s explorations in New Zealand that he began to give names to glaciers, creating what he called a “Pantheon” of landforms named for prominent individuals from leading scholars to emperors, according to chief paleontologist Charles Alexander Fleming. In addition, his studies of the effects of past glaciation became the basis for later works on glacier geology. In 1862, Haast specifically surveyed the geology of the Canterbury district and visited its glaciers. His mapping and mountaineering expeditions of Mueller Glacier, for example, became a valuable first-hand resource to Thomas Lowell et al.’s research on the Rhizocarpon calibration curve (an application tool to assess Little Ice Age glacier behavior) for the Aoraki/Mount Cook area. In his report, Nolden references 165 of Haast’s drawings from South Island surveys from 1860 to 1868 that can be found in the Haast archives. Other panoramic watercolors of the Southern Alps and map sketches of the glacier geology of New Zealand are in private collections such as in the Hochstetter Collection Basel. In addition to these works, Haast published one book of his research, entitled “Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand: A Report Comprising the Results of Official Explorations” (Haast 1879). Other useful, unpublished manuscripts written by Haast have also been located and preserved. Interestingly, despite these archives, little is known about Haast’s early life. Almost everything written about him concerns what he did after arriving to New Zealand, a fact that is often frustrating to historians. The most complete source of Haast to date is a biography written by his son, Heinrich von Haast. “For the biographer, Haast is...

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Asian Piolets d’Or Awards Recognize Outstanding Alpine Athleticism

Posted by on Nov 30, 2016 in Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Interviews, News, Sports | 0 comments

Asian Piolets d’Or Awards Recognize Outstanding Alpine Athleticism

Spread the News:ShareOn November 4th, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation (UIAA) held the 11th annual Asia Piolets d’Or awards, commemorating outstanding achievements in rock climbing and mountaineering. Considered by many to be the Oscars of alpinism, the awards have motivated progression in Asian mountaineering culture over the last decade, contributing to an ethos of safety, respect and athleticism in alpine and glacial environments. The awards honor athletes who employ lightweight, alpine-style tactics in their expeditions, rewarding a commitment to technical face climbing and positive environmental stewardship while in the mountains. These alpine style expeditions generally use less gear, leave less waste on the mountain and exemplify respect for the outdoors. At this year’s event in Seoul, Korea, six winners of the Piolets d’Or Asia were announced (comprising two climbing teams) along with recipients of the Golden Climbing Shoe Award and the coveted Piolets d’Or Lifetime Achievement accolade. In an interview with GlacierHub, American Alpine Club lifetime member Edward Rinkowski spoke to the prestige of the ceremony by stating, “Winning a Piolet d’Or is arguably the highest of achievements in climbing beyond one’s personal climbing goals. No one really sets out to win one, but if the academy recognizes you, it means you’re doing something right. ” Award recipients belonged to a pair of teams, one from South Korea and the other from Japan. Led by Chang-Ho Kim, the Korean team of three successfully established a new route on the south face of Mt. Gangapurna, a glaciated 7,455 meter (24,459 feet) peak in the west Nepalese Annapurna region. Gangapurna was first climbed by a German expedition in 1965. Since then, only eight teams have successfully reached its summit. Kim, along with his climbing partners Suk-Mun Choi and Joung-Yong Park, ascended  Gangapurna’s south face via a new, technically demanding route full of glacial ice and loose rock. They managed to leave no trace of their climb, having recovered all of their gear and expedition waste from the mountain. Rinkowski, who has climbed in this region, told GlacierHub, “The combination of technical climbing and high altitudes can be absolutely brutal. Hearing that the team recovered all of their gear is extremely impressive.” The expedition’s leader Kim is a laudable recipient of the Piolets d’Or award, having completed all 14 of the Himalayan Giants — Earth’s peaks looming taller than 8,000 meters — by 2016. The Japanese team that received the Piolets d’Or honor also consisted of three members: Koji Ito, Yusuke Sato and Kimihiro Miyagi. The group of athletes successfully climbed the Golden Pillar in the Tsurugidake Kurobe Valley, a 380m near vertical rock face in Japan. Their climb required a dangerous snow-covered bivouac (a temporary camp without tents) overnight, which subjected the team to hypothermia and frostbite. Additionally, the climb involved nine hanging belays, meaning that the team rarely had the opportunity to rest on ledges and solid ground after they set off from the ground. The Kurobe Valley is considered by many alpinists to be more difficult than climbing Himalayan peaks of comparable prominence and is known for experiencing unpredictable, powerful winter storms. The team lived in the snowy region for 22 days, spending much of their time trapped in a tent awaiting a safe weather window to attempt the climb. Having been on many alpine expeditions himself, Rinkowski talked to GlacierHub about the Japanese team’s climb. “Being stuck in such a desperate situation not only puts stress on the climbers physically, but even more so mentally,” he said. “Riding out such a long storm window can be demoralizing.” Despite the adverse conditions and difficulty of the ascent, the...

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