Adaptation

Rock Glaciers Help Protect Species in a Warmer Climate

Posted by on Feb 22, 2017 in Adaptation, Featured Posts, Images, Interviews, Science | 0 comments

Rock Glaciers Help Protect Species in a Warmer Climate

Spread the News:ShareIn a recent study by Duccio Tampucci et al., rock glaciers in the Italian Alps have been shown to host a wide variety of flora and fauna, supporting plant and arthropod species during temporary decadal periods of climatic warming. Certain species that thrive in cold conditions have been prone to high environmental stress during warm climate stages in the past, but given the results of Tampucci’s research, it is now clear that these species may be able to survive in periglacial settings on the edge of existing glaciers. Active rock glaciers, commonly found on the border of larger glaciers and ice sheets, are comprised of coarse debris with intermixed ice or an ice-core. The study has valuable implications on how organisms may respond to changes in temperature, offering a possible explanation for species’ resiliency. Jonathan Anderson, a retired Glacier National Park ranger, spoke to GlacierHub about the importance of periglacial realms in providing a habitat for animals displaced by modern climate change. “In the years spent in and around the park, it’s clear that more and more animals are feeling the impact of climate change and global warming,” he said. “The areas surrounding the larger glaciers are becoming even more important than before and are now home to many of the species that lived on the receded glacier.” In their study, Tampucci and team analyzed abiotic dimensions of active rock glaciers such as ground surface temperature, humidity and soil chemistry, as well as biotic factors related to the species abundance of plants and arthropods. This data was then compared to surrounding iceless regions characterized by large scree slopes (small loose stones covering mountain slopes) as an experimental control for the glaciated landforms of interest. Comparisons between these active scree slopes and rock glaciers revealed similar soil geochemistry, yet colder ground surface temperatures existed on the rocky glaciers. Thus, more cold-adapted species existed on rock glaciers. The distribution of plant and arthropod species was found to be highly variable, dependent upon soil pH and the severity of mountain slope-instability. This variability is because the fraction of coarse debris and quantity of organic matter changes with the landform’s activity, or amount of mass wasting occurring downslope. The study notes that the heterogeneity in landforms in mountainous regions augments the overall biodiversity of the region. Anderson affirmed this idea, noting, “The difference in habitats between glaciated terrain and the surrounding, more vegetated regions is crucial for allowing a wide range of animals to coexist.” This variety of landforms contributes to a wide variety of microclimates in which ecologically diverse organisms can reside in close proximity. Cold-adapted species are likely the first to be affected by region-wide seasonal warming. As temperatures increase, cold-weather habitats are liable to reduce in size and shift to higher altitudinal belts, resulting in species reduction and possible extirpation. Tampucci et al.’s study affirmed the notion that active rock glaciers serve as refugia for cold-adapted species due to the landscape’s microclimate features. The local periglacial environment in the Italian Ortles-Cevedale Massif, for example, was shown to be decoupled from greater regional climate, with sufficient thermal inertia (resistance to temperature change) to support cold-adapted species on a decadal timescale. Despite the conclusive findings that largely affirm previous assumptions about biodiversity in active rock glaciers, the authors carefully point out that the glacier’s ability to serve as refugia for certain species depends entirely on the length of the warm-climate stage, which can potentially last for millennia. Additionally, the macroclimatic context in which the glaciers reside is important and can influence the landform’s thermal inertia, affecting the temporal scale at...

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Roundup: Carbon Sinks, Serpentine Syndrome and Migration Dynamics

Posted by on Jan 30, 2017 in Adaptation, All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, Roundup, Science | 0 comments

Roundup: Carbon Sinks, Serpentine Syndrome and Migration Dynamics

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Carbon, Serpentine, and Migration   Dwindling Glaciers Lead to Potential Carbon Sinks From PLOS ONE: “Current glacier retreat makes vast mountain ranges available for vegetation establishment and growth. As a result, carbon (C) is accumulated in the soil, in a negative feedback to climate change. Little is known about the effective C budget of these new ecosystems and how the presence of different vegetation communities influences CO2 fluxes. On the Matsch glacier forefield (Alps, Italy) we measured over two growing seasons the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of a typical grassland, dominated by the C3 Festuca halleri All., and a community dominated by the CAM rosettes Sempervivum montanum L… The two communities showed contrasting GEE but similar Reco patterns, and as a result they were significantly different in NEE during the period measured. The grassland acted as a C sink, with a total cumulated value of -46.4±35.5 g C m-2 NEE, while the plots dominated by the CAM rosettes acted as a source, with 31.9±22.4 g C m-2. In spite of the different NEE, soil analysis did not reveal significant differences in carbon accumulation of the two plant communities, suggesting that processes often neglected, like lateral flows and winter respiration, can have a similar relevance as NEE in the determination of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance.” Learn more about the colonization of a deglaciated moraine here.   Vegetation and the Serpentine Syndrome From Plant and Soil: “Initial stages of pedogenesis (soil formation) are particularly slow on serpentinite (a dark, typically greenish metamorphic rock that weathers to form soil). This implies a slow accumulation of available nutrients and leaching of phytotoxic (poisonous to plants) elements. Thus, a particularly slow plant primary succession should be observed on serpentinitic proglacial areas. The observation of soil-vegetation relationships in such environments should give important information on the development of the serpentine syndrome (a phrase to explain plant survival on serpentine)… Plant-soil relationships have been statistically analysed, comparing morainic environments on pure serpentinite and serpentinite with small sialic inclusions in the North-western Italian Alps….Pure serpentinite supported strikingly different plant communities in comparison with the sites where the serpentinitic till was enriched by small quantities of sialic rocks.” Find out more about the serpentine syndrome here.   Climate Changes Landscape of South American Communities From Global Migration Issues: “Mountain regions are among the most vulnerable areas with regard to global environmental changes. In the Bolivian Andes, for example, environmental risks, such as those related to climate change, are numerous and often closely intertwined with social risks. Rural households are therefore characterized by high mobility, which is a traditional strategy of risk management. Nowadays, most rural households are involved in multi-residency or circular migratory movements at a regional, national, and international scale. Taking the case of two rural areas close to the city of La Paz, we analyzed migration patterns and drivers behind migrant household decisions in the Bolivian Andes… Our results underline that migration is a traditional peasant household strategy to increase income and manage livelihood risks under rising economic pressures, scarcity of land, insufficient local off-farm work opportunities, and low agricultural productivity… Our results suggest that environmental factors do not drive migration independently, but are rather combined with socio-economic factors.” Read more about migration dynamics here. Spread the...

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Ice-Spy: Declassified Satellite Images Measure Glacial Loss

Posted by on Jan 5, 2017 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Policy and Economics, Science | 0 comments

Ice-Spy: Declassified Satellite Images Measure Glacial Loss

Spread the News:ShareSince the 1960s, images from spy satellites have been replacing the use of planes for reconnaissance intelligence missions. Making the transition from planes to satellites was prompted by an infamous U-2 incident during the Cold War when U.S. pilot Francis Gary Powers’ U-2 spy plane was shot down in Soviet air space. Five days later, after considerable embarrassment and controversy, President Eisenhower approved the first launch of an intelligence satellite, part of a new scientific electronic intelligence system termed ELINT. Today, declassified images from satellites have resurfaced to support scientific research on glaciers and climate change. Scientists from Columbia University and the University of Utah created 3-D images of glaciers across the Himalayas, and Bhutan specifically, by using satellite imagery to track glacial retreat related to climate change. Joshua Maurer et al. published the results of their Bhutan study in The Cryosphere to help fill in the gaps of “a severe lack of field data” for Eastern Himalayan glaciers. Being able to understand and quantify ice loss trends in isolated mountain areas like Bhutan requires physical measurements that are currently not available due to complex politics and rugged terrain. Luckily, the scientists found an alternative route to reach their measurement goals by comparing declassified spy satellite images from 1974 with images taken in 2006 using the ASTER, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, a spaceborne imaging instrument aboard NASA’s earth-observing Terra satellite. Bhutan has hundreds of glaciers and glacial lakes. Physical data collection can be a daunting process in such a region considering the vast quantity of glaciers in combination with freezing weather conditions and high winds. The lead researcher of the Bhutan study, Joshua Maurer from Columbia University, experienced firsthand the logistical challenges associated with directly measuring changes in glacial ice density when conducting research on glacial change in the remote and high-altitude regions of Bhutan. Inspired by this difficult experience, Maurer collaborated with other scientists from the University of Utah to find alternative methods for quantifying trends in glacial ice density. Maurer and the team of researchers devised a strategy to use declassified satellite images to collect data by a process of photogrammetry, the use of photographs to survey and measure distances. More than 800,000 images from the CORONA Satellite program, taken in the 1970s and 1980s, have been sent to the U.S. Geological Survey from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and made available to the public. Several advanced mathematical tools are necessary for making measurements from raw image files. For this particular study, the team used the declassified photos from the 1970s to track changes in glacial ice coverage over time when compared to more recent images from the Hexagon Imagery Program database taken by the Swiss-based Leica Geosystems’ airborne sensors in 2006. Once a timeline was created from the pictures, measurements were made using NASA’s space tool ASTER. This method, Maurer argues, is the solution for measuring massive amounts of hard-to-access data. But making precise measurements integrating several sets of images from different periods of time is no simple task. Pixel blocks, minute areas of illuminations from which images are composed, were processed to correspond with regions designated on the film. The blocks of pixels were then selected to maximize coverage of glaciers and avoid regions with cloud cover. Computer-generated algorithms transform these blocks of image into measurements using automated point detectors and descriptors. Images from the declassified satellite database may suffer from a lack of clarity, so it was also important for the researchers to address these issues. For example, debris-covered glaciers are difficult to distinguish from surrounding terrain using visible imagery...

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How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Posted by on Dec 29, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Art/Culture, Communities, Featured Posts | 0 comments

How Arctic and Subarctic Peoples Perceive Climate Change

Spread the News:ShareIndigenous Arctic and Subarctic communities face social and environmental challenges that could impact their traditional knowledge systems and livelihoods, decreasing their adaptive capacity to climate change. In a paper featured in Ecology and Society, Nicole Herman-Mercer et al. discuss recent research that took place during an interdisciplinary project called Strategic Needs of Water on the Yukon (SNOWY). The project focused on how indigenous communities in the Lower Yukon River Basin and the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta regions of Alaska interpret climate change. Global warming has had a significant impact on these regions, with mean annual temperatures increasing 1.7°C over the past 60 years, according to the study. Rising temperatures are predicted to further change water chemistry, alter permafrost distribution, and increase glacier melt. These changes have had a massive impact on the residents living in the Yukon River Basin and their indigenous knowledge, as well as on the basin itself. For example, the basin’s largest glacier, the Llewellyn Glacier, has had a major contribution to increased runoff.  With environments changing at an ever-rapid pace around the world, more studies have begun to focus on indigenous knowledge and climate change vulnerability. Scientists believe it is important to understand indigenous culture because indigenous knowledge informs perceptions of environmental change and impacts how communities interpret and respond to risk. The focus of previous studies in the Arctic and Subarctic had been on older generations in the community, whose observations help shape historical baseline records of weather and climate. These records are frequently missing or incomplete. However, as Herman-Mercer et al. explain, the role of younger generations in indigenous Yukon communities is often overlooked, despite younger people driving community adaptation efforts in response to climate change. Additionally, Kusilvak County, Alaska, where Herman-Mercer et al. focused their study, has a median age of 21.9 years, which makes it the youngest county in the United States. During the project, Herman-Mercer et al. studied four villages with populations under 1,000 people. These villages are home to the native Alaska communities of the Yup’ik and Cup’ik peoples, named for the two main dialects of the Yup’ik language. These indigenous communities are traditionally subsistence-based, with the availability of game and fish, such as moose, salmon, and seals, determining the location of seasonal camps and villages. Herman-Mercer et al. interviewed residents to better understand the communities’ observations of climate change and relationship with the environment. For example, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people traditionally believe in a reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment, which influences how they view natural disasters and climate change. Rather than seeing these events as naturally occurring, the communities believe that environmental events are punishment for improper human behavior. As a result, the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people have cautionary tales of past famines and poor harvest seasons caused by immoral behavior. These tales also contain information on how to survive hardships using specific codes of conduct. Herman-Mercer et al. relied on three methods to obtain interview participants for the study. First, the researchers had local partners and facilitators recruit members of the communities who were seen as experts. Then a community dinner was held in order to introduce the research team and SNOWY to the Yup’ik and Cup’ik people. Lastly, the researchers used a “snowball” approach in which the team encouraged participants to recommend other people for the study. Nicole Herman-Mercer explained to GlacierHub that all but two of the interviews were conducted in English. For the two remaining interviews, a translator was used. In order to avoid influencing answers, the researchers refrained from using the phrase “climate change” when speaking with the Yup’ik and...

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Mapping Landslides in the Himalayas

Posted by on Dec 8, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

Mapping Landslides in the Himalayas

Spread the News:ShareUttarakhand Himalaya in northwest India is a rural, mountain region that shares borders with Nepal and Tibet. Often referred to as “The Land of Gods” for its physical grandeur, Uttarakhand is surrounded by some of the world’s highest peaks and glaciers. However, such beauty comes at a price. The Uttarakhand area is prone to natural and glacier-related disasters, often exacerbated by the region’s topography and climate patterns. Landslides, triggered by heavy rainfall and events called glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), expose the high mountain communities to infrastructure, life and community losses. A recent article by Naresh Rana Poonam et al. in Geomorphology measured and mapped susceptibility in Uttarakhand to help create a template that can be applied to locations facing similar climate-related landslides. To conduct their research, Poonam et al. relied on Landslide Susceptibility Zonation (LSZ) mapping in order to deepen understanding and response in Uttarakhand to local hazards in a manner that can also be replicated elsewhere. Landslide Susceptibility Zonation (LSZ) is a type of mapping system that organizes different variables like geological, geomorphic, meteorological and man-made factors as high-risk based on the chances of slope failure. A slope failure occurs whenever a mountain slope collapses due to gravitational stresses, often triggering a destructive local landslide. Mapping these vulnerabilities is critical to understanding the dynamics and potential force of future landslides in the Himalayas and elsewhere. Many of Uttarakhand’s peaks have year-round snowpack with glaciers and glacial lakes that can be disturbed by shifting rainfall patterns and changes in the onset of monsoon season. These disruptions can cause a destabilization deep within the ground, causing the initial movement needed to produce a landslide. Additionally, Uttarakhand’s proximity to the Indian Plate, a large tectonic plate where movement occurs along the boundaries, makes it especially vulnerable to frequent earthquakes. According to the United States Geological Survey, the last earthquake in Uttarakhand occurred on December 1, 2016, with a 5.2 magnitude. The energy released during an earthquake of that magnitude has the potential to trigger multiple, large-scale landslides. Given the high-altitude location of Uttarakhand, earthquakes can also cause glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), a type of flood that occurs when the terminal moraine dam located at the maximum edge of a glacier collapses, releasing a large volume of water. These events can be especially destructive to rural mountain communities that are hard to access, making recovery efforts challenging and untimely. Additionally, these villages are often settled in areas where landslides naturally funnel. Preparing mountain communities to understand the risks they face is critical to minimizing damage associated with natural disasters. As a recent article in GlacierHub points out, “Educating and adapting ensures resilience to risks associated not only with glacial outburst flood risks, but also other risks associated with changing climates.” In an attempt to lower the risk of a landslide disaster triggered by a glacial lake outburst flood or rainfall event, Poonam et al. looked at ways to increase accuracy of floodplain mapping. The hope is to help increase the resiliency of communities by encouraging smart expansion with higher predictability of slide prone areas. LSZ mapping is created using the Weights of Evidence method, a statistical procedure for calculating risk assessment using training data, like an established inventory of previous landslides. This statistical approach allows for information retrieved from a geographic information system (GIS) and remotely sensed data to be integrated regionally. LSV maps can also be derived from a knowledge-driven method that involves more human interpretation; however, this method is based on expert evaluations of a location. According to the article, the statistical approach is used more...

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Iceberg Killing Fields Threaten Carbon Cycling

Posted by on Nov 24, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

Iceberg Killing Fields Threaten Carbon Cycling

Spread the News:ShareThe vast, unpopulated landscape of Ryder Bay, West Antarctica gives the impression of complete isolation. However, despite its barren, cold exterior, Antarctica plays an important role in regulating the Earth’s climate system. Located along the southeast coast of Adelaide Island, Ryder Bay is helping mitigate impacts of climate change by removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere to the ocean, where these gases can remain for centuries. This repurposing is being done by benthos, microorganisms like phytoplankton that bloom during summer months and provide critical food supplies that maintain the marine ecosystem in Ryder Bay. Quietly residing on the floor of the Southern Ocean, benthos are encountering increased risks due to a changing climate. While the potential carbon recycling capacity of local marine ecosystems remains significant, the collapsing glaciers and ice shelves in Ryder Bay may threaten this productivity, according to an article in the journal of Global Change Biology. The carbon recycling process in the marine ecosystems is one of the strongest mechanisms helping to reduce the impacts associated with historic carbon emissions. Located along the continental shelf, benthos absorb carbon through photosynthesis; when these organisms die and fall to the ocean floor, this carbon is then stored in sediments. Undisturbed, the ocean can help thwart warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect by removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in the ocean. David Barnes, a Marine Benthic Ecologist with the British Antarctic Survey and an author of the article,  pointed out to GlacierHub, “Trends in carbon accumulation and immobilization, which occur on the seabed, could be considered most important as these involve long-term carbon storage. [These trends] are perhaps the largest negative feedback on climate change.” However, because of shifting land dynamics, the increased frequency of iceberg creation is having a direct impact on the ability of the marine ecosystems to recycle carbon. As the Earth continues to warm, ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica advance and become thinner, causing cracks and crevasses to form. These fissures, in turn, lead to unpredictable, large-scale breaks which create icebergs that discharge into the ocean. At the time of detachment, ice formations hit the ocean floor, obliterating the marine ecosystems below. Icebergs can continue to impact the benthos as they travel on the ocean. Barnes described this problem to GlacierHub:  “At places like Ryder Bay, it would be very difficult to provide forecasting, because it is very frequent and a bit chaotic. The direction an iceberg travels depends on its shape, how deep its keel is, wind, and current speed. A smaller iceberg with a vertically flat side above water will easily catch wind like a sail, so if the wind is strong it will mainly follow wind direction. Conversely, a bigger iceberg with a deep vertical flat side might more easily catch current.” According to NOAA, these icebergs— typically rising 5 meters above the sea surface and covering 500 square meters in area— are large enough to inflict significant destruction. Dubbed “iceberg killing fields,” these places of impact can cause extensive disruption to the beneficial marine ecosystems along the ocean floor. David Barnes works with the British Antarctic Survey to study the iceberg killing fields and measure the impact of iceberg-seabed collisions on marine ecosystems. The British Antarctic Survey has been monitoring the local marine ecosystems in Ryder Bay due to their sensitivity to environmental change and the surprisingly large role benthos play in removing carbon from the atmosphere. According to the report, “The scour monitoring has probably become the longest continuously running direct measurement of disturbance on the seabed anywhere in the world.” With roughly 93 percent of carbon...

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