Posts by Souvik Chatterjee

Toxic Minerals in Tibetan Glacier Meltwater

Posted by on Jan 18, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News | 1 comment

Toxic Minerals in Tibetan Glacier Meltwater

Spread the News:ShareHigher concentrations of toxic minerals have recently been found in glacial meltwater in the Tibetan Plateau region and are raising health concerns. Meltwater has eroded rock which is newly exposed due to glacier retreat, releasing hazardous amounts of iron, lead and other minerals into streams and rivers. A recent paper in the Journal of Hydrology authored by Xiangying Li et al. presents evidence recorded in 2013 of tainted meltwater from Dongkemadi Glacier in central Tibet. According to Voa News, climate research indicates that the Tibetan Plateau has been warming since the 1980s. The mass of ice in Tibet is the largest anywhere on Earth outside of the polar regions, and the plateau is increasing in temperature four times faster than the rest of the planet. Some of the meltwater, which has increased due to warming temperatures, deposits into the Yangtze, Mekong, Yellow and Indus rivers. Tibetan glaciers are estimated to hold 14.5% of the world’s glacier mass. It’s also estimated that 247 square kilometers of glaciers disappear annually, with a total of 18% of glaciers having disappeared since the 1950s. The Dongkemadi Glacier, which the researchers analyzed, is located in central Tibet and has an area of 15.89 km² and a maximum elevation of 5,275 meters. To reach their findings, researchers took samples from the meltwater of the Dongkemadi Glacier and found bicarbonate and calcium were dominant ions, followed by magnesium, sodium and sulfate. Other minerals also included  iron, strontium, boron, aluminum, barium and lithium. Most of these elements are transported while they are in the dissolved phase, while carbonates may be absorbed by solids and remain highly mobile. Other chemicals were found to be at a level deemed insignificant, below the threshold of 1 μg/l (micrograms per liter).  Katherine Alfredo, a research scientist at Columbia University’s Water Center, who spoke with GlacierHub about the research, said, “The results of the article, that glacial retreat can expose rock and lead to new weathering and contamination, are totally plausible. The methods of sampling and analysis are sound.” Compared to meltwater from the Haut Glacier d’Arolla in Switzerland, which the researchers used as a benchmark for average glacial meltwater hydrochemistry, concentrations of sodium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, bicarbonate, lithium, strontium and barium were higher in the Tibetan Plateau. This discrepancy may be due to a higher abundance of carbonates like calcite, which more heavily influences the meltwater’s chemistry in the Tibetan Plateau than compared to the Haut Glacier d’Arolla. This suggests that the Tibetan Plateau has higher chemical weathering than other glacial water networks, with a higher amount of chemicals potentially discharged into the water system in Tibet.  The high concentrations of metals such as iron, lead, nickel, chromium, arsenic, copper and aluminum found in the meltwater can have significant negative impacts on human health and the environment. For example, lead exposure is known to cause impaired physical and mental developments, nickel exposure can cause kidney failure or birth defects, and aluminum exposure can increase chances of Alzheimer’s disease. The highest iron concentrations found by the researchers exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency’s guidelines, while concentrations of aluminium, zinc and lead are currently close to the guideline values.  Monitoring of the Tibetan Plateau’s glacier meltwater for hazardous concentrations of minerals is important to public health and the environment. However, data is limited because long-term observance of hydrochemistry can be costly and isn’t typically included in glacial monitoring programs. As climate change continues to melt the glaciers and increase rock exposure, more chemicals will be deposited into the water system in Tibet, posing risks to health. Seeing how significant the effects have already been, it is important to continue monitoring glaciers, even if...

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Photo Friday: Historic Images of Glaciers

Posted by on Dec 30, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Historic Images of Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareThe National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) advances scientific research on the frozen areas of the Earth, known as the crysophere, and the climate that influences them. Founded in 1976, the center manages a data archive and educates the public about the cryosphere, including the world’s glaciers. Scientists of the NSIDC specialize in collecting data through remote sensing, which is the process of using satellites to observe information. The center was originally formed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) to hold archives from NOAA’s programs. Today, the NSIDC is housed at the University of Colorado at Boulder, where it continues to be the leader of cryospheric data management. The photographs held by the NSIDC date back to the mid-1800s and include images of glaciers in Europe, South America, the Himalayas, Antarctica and elsewhere. As of 2010, the searchable, online collection has over 15,000 photos of glaciers, which serve as important historical records for researchers and scientists studying the impacts of climate change. Take a look at GlacierHub’s compilation of photographs from the database. To view more historic images, visit the NSIDC’s Glacier Photograph Collection.                     Spread the...

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New Glacier App, A Finalist for Swiss App Awards

Posted by on Dec 21, 2016 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

New Glacier App, A Finalist for Swiss App Awards

Spread the News:ShareA new glacier-themed app is a finalist for this year’s Swiss App Awards, an elite competition for mobile and app developers. The wgms Glacier App gives users access to the glacier database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) right from their smartphone, with over 3,700 glaciers loaded on it. Created by the WGMS at the University of Zurich and Ubique Apps and Technology, the mobile application aims to help everyone from scientists to hikers access scientific information available on the world’s glaciers. Launched alongside the 2015 COP 21 in Paris, the app provides information such as glacial dimensions, locations, photographs and changes in glacier mass. This data is provided free of cost, and the app can be used without internet connection. Glaciers may be searched by name, country or region as well as by current “health” status. The application also includes a compass that points out nearby glaciers and a card game that tests glacier knowledge. “All data used by the app is freely available for scientific and educative purposes,” said Samuel Nussbaumer, science officer at the University of Zurich, to GlacierHub. “It is one task of the WGMS to make this data accessible. The WGMS maintains a network of local investigators and national correspondents in all countries involved in glacier monitoring.” The WGMS has been collecting data for more than 120 years with the help of its correspondents in more than 35 countries. Hosted in the University of Zurich’s Department of Geography, the WGMS is co-financed by the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss. Due to warming temperatures as a result of climate change, the world’s glaciers are rapidly receding, pushing the WGMS into the spotlight. Currently, the WGMS provides information on about 130,000 glaciers and includes facts and figures on the fluctuations of the glaciers, like ice mass, volume, length and height. In addition, information is collected by the service on ice avalanches, glacier lake outburst floods, glacier calving (when a chunk of ice suddenly breaks off from the rest of the glacier) and glacier surges (when a glacier moves 100 times faster than normal). Nico Mölg, the scientific project leader of the WGMS involved in developing the app, told GlacierHub, “With this setting we intended to make the comprehensive database more visible and the access handier. Colleagues in science use it, people in NGOs working in the climate domain use it, and non-specialists, like hikers and mountaineers, interested in the topic of climate change and changing environments also use it. At the same time, the app also provides more visibility for the people performing the actual work.” Mölg added that the app will be updated in the spring and will soon be available in French, in addition to its current languages of Spanish, German, Russian and English. The WGMS doesn’t work alone in providing this scientific data. Along with the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative, the WGMS runs the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G), which facilitates communication among the three organizations in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Best of Swiss Apps, which the glacier app was a finalist for, is an initiative started by the Swiss Internet Industry Association in 2001. It gave its award out in November to another app collaborated on by Ubique. The purpose of the award, according to the site, is to promote transparency in the industry, establish a quality of standards through professional judging, provide a young industry more attention, and offer networking opportunities. Take the Daniels...

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Alfa Romeo Debuts the Stelvio, Named for Italy’s Stelvio Pass

Posted by on Dec 7, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Sports | 0 comments

Alfa Romeo Debuts the Stelvio, Named for Italy’s Stelvio Pass

Spread the News:ShareThe Italian car company Alfa Romeo recently debuted an SUV named the Stelvio after the Stelvio Pass, a high-altitude roadway located in the Eastern Alps. The Stelvio Pass, also known as the Stilfser Joch in German, is famous for its winding, hairpin turns that give the driver breathtaking views of nearby mountains covered in glaciers. The pass is considered to be a top scenic route, with the BBC automobile show Top Gear officially naming it the “greatest driving road in the world.” It’s no wonder then that Alfa Romeo decided to capitalize on the road’s allure. The 2018 Alfa Romeo Stelvio, the manufacturer’s first SUV model, was revealed at the Los Angeles car show in November. The premium version of the vehicle, called the Quadrifoglio Stelvio, can go from 0 to 60 miles per hour in 3.9 seconds, which Alfa Romeo claims is the fastest in its class. The car’s engine is superb with a 2.9-liter twin-turbo V6 and 505 horsepower. In comparison, the luxury 2017 Acura MDX has a horsepower of only 290. The Stelvio’s engine is also capable of shutting off half of its cylinders when they are not needed, meaning better overall fuel economy. According to CarBuyer, prices will start around £35,000 ($43,887) for the entry-level model and at least £65,000 ($81,505) for the Quadrifoglio edition. “The SUV looked good, but keep in mind that I haven’t driven it yet. Nobody has. So it’s very hard to really know,” said Brent Snavely, an auto reporter for the Detroit Free Press, to GlacierHub. “I would say it’s an incredibly important vehicle for the Alfa Romeo lineup. It’s essential for any premium or luxury brand to have a small SUV in its lineup these days because that is the fastest growing segment in the U.S. auto industry.” Renowned for their sports car lineup, Alfa Romeo has a long history on the race track, winning multiple championship races like the Le Mans, Formula 1 and the European Touring Car Championship. The brand, founded in 1910 in Milan, also has a place in popular culture with cameos in famous movies like The Godfather, The Pink Panther and James Bond films. As to why the brand decided to make an SUV for the first time, Berj Alexanian of Alfa Romeo North America told GlacierHub, “The world’s passion, especially in North America, for sport utility vehicles is only growing stronger. Sales of SUVs, pickups and vans have accounted for more than half of all U.S. light-vehicle sales (which also include cars) in each of the last 42 months.” Lower gas prices and changing consumer tastes have a lot to do with the growing  popularity of SUVs in the United States, according to Alfa Romeo. “North America and the U.S. market specifically offer a great opportunity for not only Stelvio but the Alfa Romeo brand,” Alexanian added. “The premium luxury automotive space has embraced the SUV environment, and Alfa Romeo is now here with Stelvio as well.” With the new model, Alfa Romeo hopes to reflect the “traveling spirit” of the Stelvio Pass, according to the company. The roadway that serves as the inspiration rises 2,757 meters (9,045 feet) above sea level and boasts 48 hairpin turns, all of which are numbered in stone beside the road. Due to the strenuous climb, the bicycle race Giro d’Italia (Tour of Italy) sometimes holds a stage of its tournament on the pass. There is also an annual Stelvio Bike Day. The road itself is named the Strada Statale 38 and is 21.5 km (13.4 miles) long from start to finish. During the drive,...

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Photo Friday: Endangered Species of the Melting Himalayas

Posted by on Dec 2, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Endangered Species of the Melting Himalayas

Spread the News:ShareThe Himalayas, located between the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau, is among the world’s best known mountain ranges, but the region is rapidly melting as a result of climate change. This has life-threatening consequences for the diverse wildlife and people who call the mountains home. Animals native to the Himalaya range include the critically endangered red panda, Himalayan brown bear, snow leopard and tahr, to name just a few. Many of these species are gradually dwindling in number as their habitats are impacted by humans, rising temperatures and glacial melt. In 2012, for example, the World Wildlife Fund found that 30 percent of snow leopard habitat in the Himalayas may be lost to treeline shift as a result of warmer and wetter conditions, with only an estimated 4,000 snow leopards still left in the wild. The increase in temperature has caused the glaciers in the snow leopard’s habitat to recede, affecting permafrost, precipitation and water resources. Pakistan’s Minister of Climate called the snow leopard a “thermometer of the health of the mountain ecosystem.” GlacierHub hopes you will marvel at this collection of photos from the Himalayas, featuring wildlife that may very well soon be lost to climate change.                                   Spread the...

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