Posts by Sarah Kai Zhen Toh

Putin Visits Arctic Glaciers

Posted by on Apr 18, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics | 0 comments

Putin Visits Arctic Glaciers

Spread the News:SharePresident Vladimir Putin recently visited Russia’s Franz Josef Land archipelago in March, where he was briefed about scientific research taking place at the glaciers. He even grabbed an ice pick and carved out a sample from one of the glaciers. The main purpose of the trip was to inspect the progress of a project to clean up more than 40,000 tons of military and other debris from the Soviet era, as reported by Russian news agencies. Accompanied by the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, Minister for Natural Resources Sergey Donskoy, and Minister of Defense Sergey Shoigu, Putin arrived on Aleksandra Land, the westernmost island of Franz Josef Land. Located in the Arctic Ocean, Franz Josef Land lies in the northernmost part of Arkhangelst oblast (a type of administrative division analogous to a province) and consists of 191 uninhabited islands, except for a remote Russian military base. 85 percent of Franz Josef Land is glaciated. He was taken on a tour through a cave in the Polar Aviators’ Glacier, which is used to study permafrost. He also visited the Omega field base in the Russian Arctic National Park, where he was briefed about environmental cleanup and biodiversity conservation efforts in Franz Josef Land, the Kremlin reports. Other activities included participating in the launch of a weather probe and visiting a military facility. The visit comes amidst a variety of efforts by Russia to assert its foothold in the Arctic. “Putin’s recent visit draws attention to the long-standing objective of Russia to maintain its position as the leading Arctic power,” explained Katarzyna Zysk, an associate professor at the Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies, to GlacierHub. “It is to be achieved by strengthening the state presence… by developing rich natural resources and implementing a large-scale military modernization programme, as Putin reiterated himself during the visit. The fact that Putin was accompanied by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu has highlighted the importance of Russia’s military presence in the region.” In 2015, Russia submitted a formal claim to the UN that asserted control over a large swathe of the Arctic that extends more than 350 miles from mainland Russia’s coast. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, countries can claim an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) up to 200 nautical miles from their coastline. However, it also allows countries to claim territory as far as the continental shelf extending from the country’s coast line. This claim was made under the latter provision and rests on the basis that the Lomonosov ridge, an underwater mountain range in the Arctic, is a natural extension of the Russian continental shelf. Denmark made a competing claim in 2014, which asserts that the Lomonosov ridge is part of Greenland. “The visit is likely to be read (by other countries with interests in the Arctic) as a reassertion of the Russian interest and a clear message that despite a host of problems Russia has been struggling with at the domestic and foreign policy fronts, the Arctic remains nonetheless strategically important and on the authorities’ radar,” Zysk stated. Territory within the Arctic is disputed as it holds 30 percent of the world’s undiscovered gas reserves and 13 percent of the oil reserves. The three other Arctic coastal states – Norway, Canada and the U.S. – also have claims to territory within the Arctic. “Russia tries to define the Arctic and its cooperation structures isolated from other conflicts … Arctic exceptionalism is the word,” shared Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, professor of Russian energy policy at the University of Helsinki, with GlacierHub. “This is logical, as the Arctic is extremely important for Putin’s...

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Photo Friday: Edward Theodore Compton’s Artwork

Posted by on Apr 14, 2017 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Edward Theodore Compton’s Artwork

Spread the News:ShareEdward Theodore Compton, usually referred to as E.T. Compton, was a German painter, illustrator and mountain climber who lived from 1849-1921. He is best known for his paintings and drawings of alpine scenery, many of which also contain glaciers.  Born in London, Compton’s family moved to Darmstadt, Germany, in 1867, for him to continue his education. He was also a skilled mountaineer, making 300 major ascents during his lifetime, mostly within Europe. For example, he made the first documented ascents of 27 mountains, including Torre di Brenta in the Italian Alps and Grossglockner in Austria, which he climbed at the age of 70! Apart from oil and watercolor paintings, Compton also produced numerous illustrations of alpine scenery. Many of his works help to document the days of early alpinism, showing what mountains and glaciers looked like in the past.                You can check out more of Compton’s paintings and illustrations, or take a look at other glacier artwork here. Spread the...

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Enduring Benefits of Endurance Races

Posted by on Apr 4, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Policy and Economics, Sports, Tourism | 0 comments

Enduring Benefits of Endurance Races

Spread the News:ShareSporting events, both major and minor, can have significant impacts on host communities. A recent study published by Stefano Duglio and Riccardo Beltramo in the journal Sustainability examines the social and economic impacts of CollonTrek, a mountain endurance race in the Italian and Swiss Alps. The results reveal that this minor event generates significant economic benefits for the host communities and the wider area, while indirect benefits include the extension of the summer tourist season. CollonTrek is held bi-annually on the first weekend of September. The last race occurred in 2015, and the next will be held on September 8-9th of this year. Participants compete in pairs (they register in pairs and both participants have to cross the finish line), traversing 22 km on foot between Valpelline in Italy, and the Val D’Herens in Switzerland. The trail follows a centuries-old path through the Pennine Alps used by smugglers, ending in the municipality of Arolla in Switzerland. Collontrek Trail: athletes "beats" also the snowstorm. Win for duo Gonon-Lauenstein. Results http://t.co/WNgmlLS2HO pic.twitter.com/up8Pmc2M7s — Corsa in montagna (@corsainmontagna) September 6, 2015 The trail crosses a variety of terrains, from mountain paths, hiking paths, roads, and the Arolla Glacier. The path across the glacier accounts for about one-sixth of the race, making the CollonTrek more challenging. Participants require special equipment such as crampons— metal plates with spikes fixed to a boot for walking on ice— to cross the glacier. Events like CollonTrek are considered minor events, as they generate relatively little media interest, limited economic activity (compared to major events like the Olympics or tennis grand slam tournaments), and do not attract large crowds of spectators. Spectators do not pay to watch the race, but economic benefits accrue to host communities due to expenditure on accommodation, food and fuel. The researchers used a combination of official data from the CollonTrek organization and a survey of 180 athletes who took part in the 2015 race to evaluate the economic and social impacts of the race. The data revealed that €11,000 (about $11,637) of public funds invested by the host municipalities generated revenue of about €200,000 (about $214,000). Around a third of this amount accrued directly to host communities. Indirect economic benefits arise because of increased visibility of the host regions. For example, foreign participants who made up more than two-thirds of the participants surveyed expressed a desire to return to the area for tourism in the future. This event also extends the summer tourist season into September, generating more tourist revenue. In conversation with GlacierHub, Duglio explained that this increase in tourism activity also helps to sustain the livelihoods of these communities, reducing depopulation of the mountain regions and helping to maintain their way of life. The race also had the effect of improving community pride, as reported by local athletes who constituted nearly a third of participants surveyed. Climate change could affect certain segments of the race, particularly as Arolla Glacier has been retreating over the past century. “Climate change will not have much influence on the [rest of the] race, even if the passage on the glacier gives a very particular attraction to this race,” said Christian, a member of the organizing committee. “This race segment will simply be reduced if the glacier shrinks.” Duglio also stated, “The most important aspect [of climate change] that the organizing committee will have to take into account for the future is related to the participants’ safety both in terms of mountain paths and weather conditions. We do not think, however, that climate change will bring these kind of races to a stop, at...

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Roundup: Karakoram, Dust and Prokaryotes

Posted by on Mar 27, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Karakoram, Dust and Prokaryotes

Spread the News:ShareRoundup:  Karakoram, Ice Core, and Chile   Karakoram Glaciers in Balance From the Journal of Glaciology: “An anomalously slight glacier mass gain during 2000 to the 2010s has recently been reported in the Karakoram region. We calculated elevation and mass change using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from KH-9 (a series of satellites) images acquired during 1973–1980… Within the Karakoram, the glacier change patterns are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. In particular, a nearly stable state in the central Karakoram (−0.04 ± 0.05 m w.e. a−1 during the period 1974–2000) implies that the Karakoram anomaly dates back to the 1970s. Combined with the previous studies, we conclude that the Karakoram glaciers as a whole were in a nearly balanced state during the 1970s to the 2010s.” Read more about this study here.   Dust in Ice Core Reflects the Last Deglaciation From Quaternary Science Reviews: “The chemical and physical characterization of the dust record preserved in ice cores is useful for identifying of dust source regions, dust transport, dominant wind direction and storm trajectories. Here, we present a 50,000-year geochemical characterization of mineral dust entrapped in a horizontal ice core from the Taylor Glacier in East Antarctica. Strontium (Sr) and neodymium (Nd) isotopes, grain size distribution, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations, and inorganic ion (Cl− and Na+) concentrations were measured in 38 samples, corresponding to a time interval from 46 kyr before present (BP) to present… This study provides the first high time resolution data showing variations in dust provenance to East Antarctic ice during a major climate regime shift, and we provide evidence of changes in the atmospheric transport pathways of dust following the last deglaciation.” Read more about the findings here.   Prokaryotic Communities in Patagonian Lakes From Current Microbiology: “The prokaryotic (microscopic single-celled organisms without a distinct nucleus with a membrane or other specialized organelles) abundance and diversity in three cold, oligotrophic Patagonian lakes (Témpanos, Las Torres and Mercedes) in the northern region Aysén (Chile) were compared in winter and summer…Prokaryotic abundances, numerically dominated by Bacteria, were quite similar in the three lakes, but higher in sediments than in waters, and they were also higher in summer than in winter… The prokaryotic community composition at Témpanos lake, located most northerly and closer to a glacier, greatly differed in respect to the other two lakes. In this lake was detected the highest bacterial diversity… Our results indicate that the proximity to the glacier and the seasonality shape the composition of the prokaryotic communities in these remote lakes. These results may be used as baseline information to follow the microbial community responses to potential global changes and to anthropogenic impacts.” Read more about the results here. Spread the...

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A New View on Border Tensions between India and China

Posted by on Mar 21, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics | 0 comments

A New View on Border Tensions between India and China

Spread the News:ShareNumerous disputes exist in remote regions of the world where the terrain makes it difficult to secure and manage borders. One well-known example is the Sino-Indian border in the Himalayas. Known as the Line of Actual Control (LAC), this line demarcating the frontier between Indian and Chinese-controlled territory is the longest disputed land border in the world. Natural, human and technological issues complicate the management of this disputed border, as explained by Iskander Rehman in a paper published in the most recent issue of the Naval War College Review. The entire Sino-Indian border is 4056 km in length, with disputed areas found in Aksai Chin in the western part of the border and in Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern area. The disputed border in Arunachal Pradesh is sometimes referred to as the McMahon Line, which Britain and Tibet agreed to in 1914, but which has never been acknowledged by China. Both of these areas were taken over by the Chinese in the Sino-Indian war in 1962, and the two countries have remained in an uneasy coexistence since then. インド軍と中.国人民解放軍が国境付近でにらみ合い。緊張状態が続いています pic.twitter.com/0rPhVOnMpz — ボケて(秀逸) (@bokete_hot) March 6, 2017 This tweet from Japan offers a humorous take on the long standing border issue between the two countries, saying “The Indian Army and the China People’s Liberation Army intersect near the border. Tension is continuing.” Several factors have influenced the dynamics of the border dispute since 1962, as highlighted by Rehman. Three relate to military activities: India has a greater military presence along the disputed areas of the LAC, while China possesses better communications infrastructure and a more unified command structure. The fourth arises from the climate and terrain in the disputed regions. Due to the remoteness and large expanse of the Himalayas, multiple land border disputes are located within the mountain range. These can involve control of the region’s features, such as glaciers. For example, India and Pakistan have been involved in a stand-off over the Siachen Glacier in Karakoram in the northwestern part of the Himalayas since 1984. In the case of the Sino-Indian border disputes, the climate and terrain can confer strategic advantages, while creating challenges for both sides. Rehman argues that the high elevations of the Tibetan Plateau create advantages for the Chinese in terms of surveillance and the execution of artillery operations, while allowing troops stationed there to acclimatize to high-altitude warfare. Thick layers of frost and ice can also render regions of Aksai Chin more passable for heavy vehicles in winter, aiding the movement of troops and equipment.  However, other mountain passes can become inaccessible during harsh winters, and steep slopes contribute to regular landslides in Arunachal Pradesh, disrupting traffic. The highly unpredictable climate of mountainous terrain also makes military operations much more difficult, with extreme changes in the weather creating problems for troops and equipment. The effects of these difficulties are all too evident in the dispute between India and Pakistan, with the vast majority of casualties on both sides attributed to exposure, frostbite and avalanches, according to Rehman. Although hostilities ceased after 1962, and signs of Sino-Indian rapprochement emerged in the late 1970s, the issue of ‘gray-zone aggression’ (tactics adopted by revisionist powers that are coercive but do not cross established international red-lines) has created concern in India. Rehman highlights the fact that India is particularly troubled by China’s use of infrastructure development to cement claims over contested territory. Construction is often undertaken during seasons when snow makes areas inaccessible to India’s military, increasing tension along the border. The Indian military is often unable to detect these in a timely manner, allowing the Chinese...

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