Posts by kristenfrench

Going to Extremes: Glacier Boarding, a New Sport

Posted by on Nov 19, 2014 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Tourism | 0 comments

Going to Extremes: Glacier Boarding, a New Sport

Spread the News:ShareAs glaciers the world over melt, some adventure athletes are turning the ice into an extreme playground—and bringing along photographers to record their exploits. One of the new sports they are trying is called glacier boarding, but what that means exactly may depend on who you ask. In Switzerland, canyon guides Claude-Alain Gailland and Gilles Janin recently took boogie boards out to Altesch glacier, Europe’s largest. Then they donned flippers, wetsuits and helmets, dropped those boogie boards into a freezing liquid channel carved into the ice, and careened around the snaking glacial river while photographer David Carlier snapped shots from above. 7 adventure sports you didn’t know existed… #4 – Glacier Boarding: http://t.co/rtdMoAstaT pic.twitter.com/nnOpmMAMaV — Cotswold Outdoor (@CotswoldOutdoor) November 16, 2014 This particular form of glacier boarding is a bit like riding a boogie board through a slide at a water-park, only you risk hypothermia, being overtaken by glacial floods, getting hit by falling or protruding ice, or falling into a deep bottomless crevasse, according to a listicle of emergent adventure sports on the website of energy drink maker RedBull. Redbull assigned the sport an insanity level of 8 on a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 is craziest. Of course, not many people have tried it, so rarity: also a 10. Training required: High. But the term glacier boarding is also used to refer simply to snowboarding on a glacier, typically one covered in fresh powder, a relatively common sport. A team of snow boarders over in New Zealand was recently dropped onto the glaciers of Methven by helicopter, as part of a shoot for next year’s Burton Snowboards catalogue. They spent the next 10 days exploring the best places to do tricks and get perfect shots. What makes glacier snowboarding different from regular snowboarding is that the terrain can be icier, and ice formations can allow for more dramatic boarding moves, like the one shown below. Ever heard of Glacierboarding? Taking it to a whole new level! Find more here: http://t.co/0DYJBqga4w #extreme pic.twitter.com/YeJSvc3Kcz — Francesco Facca (@FraFacca) November 18, 2014 Jeff Curtes, who photographed the New Zealand group, told Oceans2Vibe, “We pick terrain that we end up riding because it generally looks ‘right’ and ‘doable’. When Jussi [one of the snowboarders] and the team saw the ice their eyes lit up with possibilities.” They also took extensive safety precautions, he said. But it was so warm that the powder snow had melted, which made the adventure a bit more dangerous, because they “were forced to play and shoot in the ice.” Glacier snowboarding videos abound on youtube. Here’s one, below, of some snowboarders on Farnham glacier in British Columbia in September 2013. Glacierhub recently wrote about another extreme glacier sport that was very short-lived: glacier wave surfing. It was so terrifying and dangerous, in fact, that the guys who invented it only attempted it once, and never went back. Spread the...

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Icelandic Zombie Glacier Survives by Shedding Dead Bits

Posted by on Oct 28, 2014 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Science | 0 comments

Icelandic Zombie Glacier Survives by Shedding Dead Bits

Spread the News:ShareIt’s alive! British scientists recently discovered that a glacier named Falljökull in Iceland, considered dead, is in fact partially “alive.” Using 3D imaging of the interior and surface of the glacier, they found that its long top section, which extends in a steep ice fall from the ice cap Öraefajökull to a plateau below, has at least temporarily saved itself by severing ties with a lower stagnant, dead piece. It brings to mind that lone hiker pinned under a rock who hacked off his arm a few years ago to escape certain demise in the wild. Perched as it is between dead and undead, Falljökull has earned the nickname zombie glacier in the popular press. But it’s not clear whether this unusual glacier behavior of sloughing off dead ice–behavior that had never before been reported–will keep this patient alive over the long run. Today, the glacier’s active, or living, length is about 700 meters shorter than it was five years ago. “It would be nice to think that the behaviour we have described at Falljökull could represent a type of ‘survival mechanism’ whereby steep mountain (Alpine) glaciers can quickly adapt to warming summer temperatures and decreasing snow fall during the winter months,” wrote Emrys Phillips, British Geological Survey research scientist and lead-author of the paper, in an email. But its survival ultimately depends on whether it remains “attached” to the Öraefajökull ice cap, its source, he said. And predicting how the glacier will behave in the future is tricky. Consider snow and ice, and you may conjure barren, unforgiving landscapes that don’t sustain much life. But most glaciers are in some sense “alive,” an idea first proposed by legendary naturalist John Muir in the late 1800s. This means that the vast sheets, bulging tongues and glittering blue crowns of ice that constitute a glacier are mobile. They flow and advance in ice-rivers and ice-falls in winter and retreat in summer, according to seasonal patterns in snowfall and melt and given the pull of gravity that results when giant hunks of packed and frozen H2O are pitched at an alpine angle. Of course, many glaciers are melting faster than they can accumulate new ice from snowfall, wind-blown snow, avalanches and frozen rain in the winter—mostly attributed to rising temperatures and increasing soot and dust in the atmosphere around the globe. This means the seasonal balance between advancing and retreating is thrown off, which can result in such a severe decline in glacier mass that the glacier is declared “dead.” A dead glacier stops moving and simply melts in place, like a giant ice cube in an empty glass on a hot day in summer. At Falljökull, the team of scientists, who published their research in the AGU Journal of Geogphysical Research in October, found that a new ice front has formed between living and dead pieces of the Falljökull glacier, with the living section actually surging up over the dead section into a bulge at a giant fault line. The scientists note that retreat of the original ice front has accelerated since 2007 and is moving at a faster rate than in any 5-year period since annual measurements began in 1932. Meanwhile, the upper part of Falljökull is still flowing forward at between 164 to 230 feet per year. “Although the margin of Falljökull has ceased moving and is now undergoing stagnation, field and photographic evidences clearly show that the icefall remains active, feeding ice from the accumulation zone on Öraefajökull to the lower reaches of the glacier,” the scientists write in the paper. “To accommodate this continued forward motion, the upper section of the glacier below the icefall is undergoing intense deformation (folding and thrusting) and, as a...

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Artists Stage Glacier Worship to Fight Climate Change

Posted by on Oct 21, 2014 in All Posts, Art/Culture, Featured Posts | 0 comments

Artists Stage Glacier Worship to Fight Climate Change

Spread the News:ShareIn early October, Peruvian artist Maxim Holland attempted to make an offering of water to a remote and legendary tropical glacier in the Peruvian Andes named Pariacaca, which is situated 13,000 feet above the sea. He lugged 150 liters of bottled water up to the foot of the glacier with the intention of boiling it until it evaporated into the thin mountain air. But the firewood, sticks and cow patties he and the other artists accompanying him were able to collect at the site only kept the fire burning long enough to consume part of his liquid sacrifice. The rest, he carried back down the mountain. The performance piece was part of a 10-day retreat into the Peruvian Andes called HAWAPI 2014 that Holland organized to bring attention to climate change and its human and environmental impacts. On October 6, Holland and an international group of 23 other artists plus a dozen Andean herders climbed up to the site just below the glacier, which is about an hour by car and two by foot from the nearest town, Tanta. They were accompanied by a pack of some 80 llamas that wound along the scrubby golden mountain trails lugging food and an odd assortment of art supplies for the group—huge copper plates, stretches of rebar, gutters, tanks of helium, welding equipment. When they arrived, they set up a solar-powered camp between two glacial lakes, and for the next ten days, they cooked, ate, slept, and battled the elements to create art in the shadow of the glacier. HAWAPI, the Quechua word for “outside,” is an itinerant arts collective that stages art events in remote regions of Peru, and this one was timed to coincide with the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change. The meeting will convene in Lima in early December, just as work from HAWAPI goes up at the Lima Contemporary Museum of Art, a show that runs from Dec. 3- Jan. 9. Many of the pieces were installed permanently at the site of the mountain camp, but documentation of their creation will be part of the museum’s exhibit. In mid October, the Peruvian government announced that climate change had shrunk the country’s glaciers by 40 percent over the past four decades, and that the meltwater has given life to 1,000 new high-altitude lakes since the 1980s. Peru hosts 70 percent of the world’s tropical glaciers, which are particularly vulnerable to rising global temperatures, and the country’s glaciers are the source of most of the country’s drinking water. Without them, the rivers will run dry. “I think it’s essential that the Pariacaca glacier be incorporated into the imagination of every resident of Lima, because it’s part of their inheritance and today it seems a little bit forgotten,” wrote Alejandro Jaime, one of the artists who participated in the project, in an email (translated from Spanish). Jaime has  a long history of producing art that showcases or addresses Pariacaca. “So, I find these creative projects like HAWAPI that are developed around this mountain symbol very healthy, that they broadcast the glacier’s presence and importance for those who drink its waters.” Glaciers have long been worshipped in the Peruvian Andes as sacred overlords of climate, keepers of rain, and they are still celebrated in annual rites called champería by many Andean communities, according to Frank Salomon, a scholar of the region. “In any province in the Andes, most people have one particular mountain they think of being as the overlord of the climate in their area,” says Salomon. “That establishes relationships between people and mountains that have to be attended to. Otherwise, people are...

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As Glaciers Melt, Mt. Shasta Could See More Mudslides

Posted by on Oct 8, 2014 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Tourism | 1 comment

As Glaciers Melt, Mt. Shasta Could See More Mudslides

Spread the News:ShareA giant mudslide sent mud and debris hurtling down the southeastern flank of California’s Mt. Shasta in late September. Experts believe glacial melting, hastened by a three-year California drought, loosened giant ice blocks at the small Konwakiton Glacier midway up the peak, dislodging earth and rocks dammed up under the ice. U.S. Forest Service climbing ranger Jonathan Dove of the Shasta-Trinity National Forest was on a ridge above the mudslide when it happened. “It sounded like a freight train barreling down the canyon,” he told the Los Angeles Times. Mt. Shasta’s September mudslide was the worst the area had seen in 20 years, according to U.S. Forest Service Hydrologist Steve Bachmann, who spoke with Redding.com. Bachman warned that another chunk of glacier could easily dislocate, shunting a new torrent of mud and boulders down the mountain. Scientists attribute the accelerated melting on the Mt. Shasta glacier, in part, to a lack of insulating snow pack. And that’s bad news. Due to climate change, snowpack is expected to decline 25 percent to 40 percent statewide by 2050. Mt. Shasta, which is a dormant volcano in the Cascades mountain range, has the most glaciers of any mountain in California. No one was hurt, and no homes were damaged from flooding, but the mudslide buried two roads in the tiny town of McCloud, in northern California’s Siskiyou County, under mud, large boulders and fallen trees. Authorities were forced to close the roads to traffic, and one of them will not likely be reopened until next year. The mudflows, which came down the appropriately named Mud Creek, also cascaded into McCloud River, popular with fishermen, and fed into Shasta Lake, which is only a quarter full due to drought. Forest Service officials told the Sacramento Bee that the drought, combined with hot summer temperatures, may have created a small lake atop or within the glacier, causing a chunk of it to collapse, which then released the dammed up water in a small outburst flood. These glacial outburst floods have a name in Iceland: “jökulhlaup.” (Read more about them on glacierhub, here.) Mt. Shasta’s Mud Creek has seen its share of mudslides in the past 100 years. The biggest occurred in 1924, when mud and debris spread over an area 8 miles by a half a mile, blocking the railroad tracks and severing water lines to the town of McCloud for two days. The mudslide made the front page of the local Redding Courier-Free Press six times in the weeks following the incident. Spread the...

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Copper Versus Ice: Chilean Mine Would Excavate Five Glaciers

Posted by on Oct 1, 2014 in All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics, Science | 0 comments

Copper Versus Ice: Chilean Mine Would Excavate Five Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareThe glaciers of Chile are threatened not just by global warming, but by mining operations high in the snow-peaked Andes cordillera. On July 24, Chile’s state-owned copper mining company Codelco, the world’s largest producer of the metal, proposed changes to a controversial $6.8 billion expansion of its Andina mine. Whether the new proposal gets the green light from environmental authorities could determine the fate of 26 glaciers in the central Andes, which form a watershed that supplies drinking water to the 6 million Chileans living in the country’s capital, Santiago. Activists were not impressed. “Nothing has changed. Andina 244 will continue destroying glaciers,” Greenpeace Chile wrote in a response. In March, Chilean Greenpeace activists declared a “Glacier Republic,” a sovereign state covering 23,000 square kilometers of glaciers in Chile that already has over 15,000 “citizens,” to push adoption of a law to protect Chile’s glaciers. And on Sep. 27, two thousand people, many of them children wearing superhero costumes, marched to the presidential palace La Moneda, in Santiago, to urge president Bachelet to write glacier protection laws. The revisions to Codelco’s project, dubbed Andina 244, came in response to concerns voiced by environmentalists and local authorities in more than 2,000 public comments on the project. But those revisions would do little to alter the mine’s direct impacts on the glaciers. Codelco had planned to remove six so-called rock glaciers to get at copper ore under the earth; opponents also charged that dust from the project would damage 20 visible ice glaciers that extend along the cordillera. Under the revised project, the range of the open-pit mine was shifted so that it will require partial removal of five rock glaciers instead of six, but the difference in total area is negligible: 89.94 acres instead of 89.97 acres. Codelco also announced that its own research, completed at the request of government authorities, showed that dust from the expansion would not accelerate melting at the neighboring visible ice, or white, glaciers. (Typically, little or no ice is visible at the surface of rock glaciers.) At least one scientist found flaws in the company’s modeling: Alexander Brenning, a glaciologist from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, who has spent many years studying Chile’s glaciers, said Codelco’s wind field data does not match data from meteorological stations in the area, which could skew its calculations of particle dispersion rates. Dust and particulate matter are known to accelerate melting of glaciers given that they darken the glaciers’ surfaces, causing them to absorb more heat from the sun. “You find subtle contradictions. According to their models, dust from their mine won’t affect white glaciers, but anecdotally they mention that you can sometimes see dust clouds from neighboring mine Los Bronces,” he said. In the revised project, Codelco also proposed measures to protect water resources: it would recycle 65% of the water used at the mine and inject fresh water directly into a nearby river to compensate for loss of glacial meltwater. And the company promised to study and preserve glaciers that feed the area’s major rivers—Mapocho, Maipo and Blanco—over the life of the project, through 2058.   For the Chilean government, weighing water and ice against copper makes for a complicated calculus. Codelco is 100% owned by the state and provides 14% of the government’s revenues, making it a major lifeblood for the country, one of South America’s strongest economies. According to Codelco, Andina 244 would also generate 18,000 jobs over the next six years. The expansion of the mine is part of a larger revamp at Codelco that is apparently needed if the company is to maintain its position as the...

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