Posts by JingchaoWang

Should Alberta Legally Protect Its Glaciers?

Posted by on May 12, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics | 0 comments

Should Alberta Legally Protect Its Glaciers?

Spread the News:ShareA recent article in the journal Appeal by Jennifer Cox of the University of Calgary discusses the possibility of legislation regimes for the roughly 700 glaciers in Alberta, Canada. She reviews existing laws and considers alternative forms which might protect these valuable, rapidly-shrinking ice bodies. Cox argues that existing laws in Canada do not protect glaciers, which she describes as sui generis, or unique. She asserts that Alberta should consider drafting legislation devoted to them, and explores how other countries— like Argentina, Kyrgyzstan, and Switzerland— have legally protected their own glaciers. Cox begins by mentioning the important status of glaciers. Glaciers provide many ecosystem services and also have touristic and economic value for sightseeing, as well as ecological and scientific value. However, climate change is the greatest threat to Alberta’s glaciers. Since glaciers retreat and their water storage capacity diminishes, problems related to the legal rights of water resources will occur. Moreover, melting glaciers could also lead to possible floods,which some researchers think could be a major problem for Alberta. Considering that glaciers can provide so many functions and but also spur conflict or disaster, Cox recommends that legislation for glaciers should be created in Alberta and that lawmakers should consider both the pitfalls and successes of laws in other countries first. Cox raises a slew of questions about glaciers and the law: As glaciers retreat and their incredible water storage is used up, who gets priority to the water? What happens to the riparian rights downstream when the primary source disappears? Who can tourist companies and national parks sue when one of their main attractions disappear? What if precious minerals, such as gold or copper, are discovered underneath Alberta’s glaciers? Who has rights to glaciers? Is there a right to glaciers? Can glaciers be removed and sold? If so, who gets the pro ts?26 What happens to borders, provincial or international, when the glaciers that differentiate them melt? Who will be liable in the case of a GLOF? In order to answer the questions above, the author tries to articulate the current situation and to give some recommendations for Alberta from a legal perspective. The Canada Water Act, the Canada National Parks Act, Alberta’s Provincial Parks Act,and Canada’s other federal and provincial climate change laws do not provide useful guidance related to the legal status of glaciers. The provincial and federal parks acts do not give a layer of direct protection for glaciers within their boundaries, and climate change regulations focus mostly on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. As for the Canada’s common law, water riparian rights are neither logically stated nor practically protected. Although international law could provide theoretical guidance, its principle is still legally inapplicable to the glaciers of Alberta. Thus, no legal regime on glaciers currently exists in Alberta. “Alberta should look to create legislation that is aimed directly at glaciers,” Cox concludes. “Proactive legislation would protect this unique economic and environmental resource for Albertans and Canadians for decades to come.” Meanwhile, wildfires continue to ravage Alberta and might take several months to extinguish. This unusually large set of wildfires reflects the influence of climate change, and points to the urgency of fighting climate change. As Cox shows, legal systems can be a crucial element in such fights. Spread the...

Read More

Roundup: More Cars, Skiers but Fewer Helicopters This Summer

Posted by on May 9, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup, Tourism | 0 comments

Roundup: More Cars, Skiers but Fewer Helicopters This Summer

Spread the News:ShareEach week, we highlight three stories from the forefront of glacier news.  100 YEARS OF PARKS From MONTANA STANDARD: “After Yellowstone National Park welcomed a record 4 million visitors in 2015, what will America’s first national park do for an encore in 2016?Probably more of the same. Tourism experts are predicting that 2016 should be another banner year for Montana’s tourism industry. Montana hosted 11.7 million nonresident travelers in 2015, an 8 percent increase from 2014. However, the $3.6 billion, in spending represented a decrease of 8 percent from the previous year. UM’s research shows that Yellowstone and Glacier National Park represent the biggest draw to out-of-state travelers. A number of events that will coincide with the centennial of the National Park Service could also boost visitation this year.” Read more here.   Group wants Glacier Park helicopter tours permanently grounded From Missoulian: “Click on a website Mary T. McClelland created a few days ago, and you’ll see waves lapping at the shore of Lake McDonald in Glacier National Park. McClelland this week released an open letter to Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell on behalf of Friends for a Quiet! Glacier Coalition, which calls for an end to scenic helicopter tours over the park by 2017. Glacier’s solitude has been shattered by hundreds of helicopter overflights,” McClelland’s letter says, “and the incessant noise pollution endured by wildlife and visitors is destroying what Glacier stands for – the pinnacle of natural beauty and tranquility.”  Read more here. Top 5 Glaciers to Ski This Summer From OnTheSnow: “If hiking for your turns during the spring means you’re committed, what does hiking for you turns during the peak of summer make you? Aside from chemically unbalanced, it makes you lucky. A number of glaciers still exist in North America (believe it or not), from the Sierras to the Tetons, offering skiers and riders not only an endless winter, but endless views as well. Here are our top-five spots to scratch (or should we say shred) that summer itch. 1. Grand Teton National Park: Glacier Route, Middle Teton 2. Glacier National Park: Salamander Glacier 3. Mount Shasta: Hotlum-Wintun Glacier 4. Sierra Nevada: Palisade Glacier 5. Mount Rainier: Paradise Glacier” Read more here. Spread the...

Read More

Aromatic, Medicinal Plants Flourish in the Himalayas

Posted by on Apr 28, 2016 in All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

Aromatic, Medicinal Plants Flourish in the Himalayas

Spread the News:ShareIn the region of the Himalayas from Bhutan, Nepal, and India, many aromatic plants grow and comprise a part of local people’s lives as medicine and food. In their review paper “Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities” in the journal Medicines, Rakesh K. Joshi, Prabodh Satyal, and William N. Setzer analyze in detail the nutritional and medicinal value of 116 aromatic plant species. The Himalayas are well-known as the world’s highest mountain range. The authors’ research area, located in the southern margin of the Himalaya range, is actually a narrow band of biodiversity. It is called by some researchers the center of plant diversity in the Himalayas. The monsoon brings rains concentrated in the summer and contributes a great deal to the rich biodiversity. The authors report, citing prior research, that “The Indian Himalaya is home to more than 8000 species of vascular plants of which 1748 are known for their medicinal properties.” The authors of the review paper indicated that the plants growing in high elevation are important for local people. Those plants provide both nutrition and medicinal functions. Some of those wild plants have been eaten by people since ancient times, while the medicinal effects have been noticed just recently. In the article, the authors list the ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oil compositions of Himalayan aromatic plants. Some of them not only are useful but have some special characteristics. For example, there are around 400 species in the genus Artemisia, like mugwort and wormwood, growing in the temperate regions, and 19 species of this genus in Himalayan regions have been recognized as medicinal herbs. The plants of this genus are traditional medicines discovered a long time ago by indigenous cultures. Most species have strong aromas, and can be smelled from a long distance. Due to their strong aromas, some of the plants in this genus are used as incense and insecticide. For example, the leaf extract of Artemisia japonica is used to treat malaria, while a paste of the leaves is applied externally to treat skin diseases in northern Pakistan. Another species, Artemisia maritima, is used by several Himalayan peoples to treat stomach problems and intestinal worms. When it comes to the Cinnamomum genus, which is in the laurel family, many people are quite familiar with the common spice, cinnamon. Chefs treat it as one important flavor and some people like cinnamon flavored coffee or tea. The Cinnamomum genus is another typical aromatic plant that are green from spring to winter. Their aromatic oils are preserved in the leaves and bark. In the Himalayan areas, eight out of 250 total species have been found. There are still many other genus of aromatic plants providing food and medicine for local people in the Himalayan places, such as the genus Cymbopogon, which is also known as lemongrass. With its distinct environment of glacial and river valleys, the Himalayas nurture a rich biodiversity. Traditional herbs still play an important role in people’s health. More species are joining in the group of medicinal herbs. As a result, it should be highlighted that plants in Himalayas demand protection considering the challenge of climate change, environmental degradation, and other threats. Spread the...

Read More

Photos: Glaciers from the National Snow & Ice Data Center

Posted by on Apr 22, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photos: Glaciers from the National Snow & Ice Data Center

Spread the News:ShareThe National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), was founded in 1976 as an information hub with the main goal of providing support for research in the field of the frozen world, including glaciers, snow, ice, and frozen ground. The services of NSIDC involve scientific data management, data access tools, scientific research, and public education. The NSIDC scientists cooperate with data providers and users to keep past, current, and future data accessible online for the purpose of Earth and climate studies. The scientists also conduct research related to glaciers, snow, and more via remote sensing technology in order to better serve the scientific community. As a non-profit organization, the data online provides access for those people interested in related topics to gain information. To know more about glaciers and other work, visit NSIDC. Pyke Glacier Pyke Glacier borders Edgeworth Glacier. Jorum Glacier The in-flight photo shows Jorum Glacier, located along the Antarctic Coast. Drygalski Glacier The in-flight photo shows Drygalski Glacier, located on the Antarctic Coast. Sjogren Glacier A discontinuous glacier breaks apart due to airfall near Sjogren Glacier. Kjenndal Glacier An avalanche happened in the Kjenndal Glacier in Norway.   Spread the...

Read More

Building a Database of Dramatic Glacial Floods

Posted by on Mar 29, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Science, Uncategorized | 0 comments

Building a Database of Dramatic Glacial Floods

Spread the News:ShareGlacial lake outburst floods are a type of deluge that occurs when a moraine–a natural dam, made of rock, sediment and ice–breaks, releasing the glacier-fed lake behind it. As a consequence, some scientists have said that it is necessary to build a database of past glacial lake outburst floods to manage and monitor the threat of future ones. A recent paper by Adam Emmer, Vít Vilímek, Christian Huggel, Jan Klimes and Yvonne Schaub in the journal Landslides, “Limits and challenges to compiling and developing a database of glacial lake outburst floods,” reports the challenges that scientists faced when compiling and developing such a database. The database, with its list of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs), can be found here. The earliest flood listed in the database occurred in 1790 in the Patagonian Andes and one of the most recent happened in 2012 in the Peruvian Andes. The database also includes what triggered the flood, with evocative descriptors like “rockfall / landslide into lake,” “earthquake,” and “icefall / snow avalanche into the lake.” The International Programme on Landslides started the database project in 2013. The specific goal was to collect data and create an accessible database of glacial lake outburst floods that have occurred across the globe. Many sources were used for the database construction: the worldwide real-time database of earthquakes provided by USGS, the NatCatSERVICE database of major disasters managed by Munich Reinsurance (Munich RE 2003), and other global databases. To be specific, a GLOFs-inventory compiled for Europe in support for the Glaciorisk project, contains 333 GLOFs in the Alps and 85 in Iceland as well as ice avalanches caused by ice-dammed lakes. By the end of October 2015, around one hundred GLOFs, only one fifth of the total number, were chronicled on the website. But more GLOFs are being gradually added from region to region.   There is increasing demand for a natural disaster database construction considering that the frequency of extreme events is on the rise. Scientists who did researches in this field gradually find the necessity of building such a database. Glacial lake outburst floods have become one of the most studied issues and thus the database construction has drawn great attention. The database can be roughly divided into the global and regional databases and case studies. The database of glacial lake outburst floods is on a global scale, trying to include glacial floods worldwide for easier access as well as more convenient scientific analysis. In order to construct the global database, the separate and detailed regional record should be unified and also updated with most recent outburst flood events, the case studies. Now the global glacial databases have 450 glacial lake data source. There are some challenges in the process of database construction. With various types of data sources, the precision of the information about particular lake outburst floods is slightly doubtful.  It is generally agreed that the source of scientific papers is the most reliable. As for improving the data validation, scientists believe that the involvement of local experts who master the regional knowledge related to glaciers to verify the data source should be added into the procedure. The database construction has received broadly positive feedback especially from the scientific community according to the data requests and availability and has begun to serve as a collaboration platform for different scientific institutions worldwide, although setbacks and limitations still exists. With precise data of glacier such as its movement over the slope below, it is a convenient way for scientists to conduct research, hazard analysis. The analysis result can even be used for insurance companies with the assessment of disaster levels,...

Read More