Posts by Holly Davison

Roundup: Penguins, Antarctica, and Geological Games

Posted by on Feb 27, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Roundup | 0 comments

Roundup: Penguins, Antarctica, and Geological Games

Spread the News:ShareRoundup: Penguins, Antartica, and Geology Board Games Looking for New Emperor Penguin Colonies From ScienceDirect: “Knowledge about the abundance and distribution of the emperor penguin is far from complete despite recent information from satellites. When exploring the locations where emperor penguins breed, it is apparent that their distribution is circumpolar, but with a few gaps between known colonies. The purpose of this paper is therefore to identify those remaining areas where emperor penguins might possibly breed. Using the locations of emperor penguin breeding colonies, we calculated the separation distance between each pair of geographically adjacent colonies. Based on mean separation distances between colonies following a circumpolar distribution, and known foraging ranges, we suggest that there may yet be six undiscovered breeding locations with half of these in Eastern and the remainder in Western Antarctica.” Read more about it here.   Patterns of Plant Succession in Antarctica From Infona: “Maritime Antarctica is severely affected by climate change and accelerating glacier retreat forming temporal gradients of soil development. Successional patterns of soil development and plant succession in the region are largely unknown, as are the feedback mechanisms between both processes. Here we identify three temporal gradients representing horizontal and vertical glacier retreat, as well as formation of raised beaches due to isostatic uplift, and describe soil formation and plant succession along them.” Learn more about it here.   19th Century Geology Board Game From Geology Today: “Wonders of Nature in each Quarter of the World was an early nineteenth century educational board game designed to teach children about some of the natural wonders of the world, such as volcanoes. The game was produced at a time of advances in geological thinking and geographical expeditions and this study places such changes and events within the context of the pastime, and presents an interesting window on the way geology was perceived almost two centuries ago.” Learn more here. Spread the...

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New Report Documents Pakistan’s Water Insecurity

Posted by on Feb 23, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, News, Policy and Economics | 0 comments

New Report Documents Pakistan’s Water Insecurity

Spread the News:ShareWater security is a pervasive issue in Pakistan, a largely arid country. The majority of the country receives less than 300mm of rain per year, while a small region in the north receives upwards of 1000 mm per year. The Indus River provides much of the water to the area, but its flow is irregular due to the variable precipitation. Moreover, the river originates partly in Pakistan and partly in India, creating additional political challenges that stem from the decades-long history of tension between the two countries. Last month, the United Nations Development Programme released a Development Advocate Pakistan report that describes the uncertain future of water in Pakistan, which is impacted by changing climate and melting glaciers, as well as political issues with neighboring India. The report’s editors suggest several ways to increase water stability in Pakistan. They advise increasing public awareness because the lack of trust stems in part from incomplete access to data and information. They also recommend high efficiency irrigation systems and updating academic curriculum in the country to include sustainable development. As the report describes, the region of Gilgit-Baltistan in northern Pakistan provides most of the water in the glaciated parts of the country. Altitudes exceed 5000 meters with annual snowfall of approximately 5000 millimeters in the highest regions. This zone is the largest area of perennial glaciers outside the polar regions; nearly one third of the Gilgit-Baltistan area is glaciated. The meltwater of these glaciers contribute a massive volume of freshwater, which forms a significant component of the flow into the Indus River. The variability of river flows as a result of monsoon seasons has led to water crises and conflicts between provinces, as well as neighboring countries. The Indus Water Treaty has allowed for peaceful relations between Pakistan and its neighbor India for the past 40 years. As Justin Rowlatt describes in his BBC report from September 2016, the Indus Water Treaty has survived two wars and numerous military impasses between the two countries. However, the increased water stress in the Indus River basin since the early 1990s has strained the treaty.  Coverage of the UNDP report in Indian and Pakistani newspapers has unsurprisingly varied. A recent article in the Times of India covering the report emphasized Pakistan’s negligence and delays in presenting cases to the Indus Water Treaty. An article in the Hindustan Times reports that, “Pakistan has cleverly employed the IWT to have its cake and eat it too” by receiving the larger amount of water the treaty allots for downstream States, while also using the treaty to sustain conflict with India. The coverage of the issue by Pakistani newspapers is sparser. In one editorial published in Pakistan Today, the author calls the UNDP report a “wake-up call” and urges cooperation between Pakistan and India to resolve the dispute. The treaty itself fails to address two important issues. The first is that it does not provide for a division of water during shortages in the dry years between India and Pakistan. The second is that it does not discuss the cumulative impact of reservoirs on the flows of the Chenab River, a major tributary of the Indus, into Pakistan. On a fundamental level, the government of Pakistan does not think the Indus Water Treaty is effective because its people are not satisfied with the amount of water received, but the government of India does not wish to amend the treaty or address water conflict between the countries in other contexts. The treaty allows India to create reservoirs on nearby rivers to store water for hydropower and flood shortages. This provision has created conflicts between...

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Photo Friday: Mt. Baker Glaciers

Posted by on Feb 17, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

Photo Friday: Mt. Baker Glaciers

Spread the News:ShareWashington is the second most-glaciated state in the United States, after Alaska. Mount Baker, located in the North Cascade Range, is an active stratovolcano that contains about 49 square kilometers of glaciers. The region is a popular skiing destination and the surrounding Skagit Valley provides a beautiful location from which to photograph glaciers. Chris Pribbernow is an outdoor and sports photographer based in Washington. He recently captured the Skagit Valley and Mount Baker glaciers. Take a look at some of the photographs from his visits or see his other images from Washington State @PribbernowPhotography.           Spread the...

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Flood Early Warning Systems Leave Women Vulnerable

Posted by on Feb 9, 2017 in All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts, Policy and Economics | 0 comments

Flood Early Warning Systems Leave Women Vulnerable

Spread the News:ShareGlacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) pose an immediate threat to locations in mountain regions where rising temperatures contribute to glacier melt. This risk makes it crucial that communities at risk to GLOFs develop early warning systems (EWS) to alert residents of impending danger. In order for EWS to be effective, gender needs to be prioritized. In a recent paper published by the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Mandira Shrestha et al. evaluated flood early warning systems in Bhutan and found that many EWS exclude women, who are especially susceptible to natural disasters like GLOFs. GLOFs, which are difficult to predict and devastating to local populations, occur when meltwater is suddenly released from a lake just below a glacier. When this occurs, large amounts of water rush down valleys, picking up debris. They can lead to many deaths and to extensive destruction of fields and property.   In total, Bhutan has 24 lakes which are capable of causing GLOFs.  As temperatures rise, glacier melt increases, leading to exposed moraines and larger volumes of water. However, an EWS can help save lives during a GLOF, especially if it is combined with preparatory actions before a flood occurs. In Bhutan, the EWS was first introduced in 1988 as part of the Hindu Kush Himalayan – Hydrological Cycle Observing System (HKH-HYCOS), a project developed by ICIMOD, national governments in the region, and the World Meteorological Organization. However, Shrestha et al. found that none of the current policies in Bhutan’s EWS address specific needs and experiences of women during natural disasters. In planning documents, women are described as victims, rather than presented as playing an important role in disaster risk management. The Bhutan EWS contains four major elements, also found in other warning systems: risk assessment, monitoring and warning, dissemination and communication, and response capability. The Bhutanese government first prioritized flood early warning systems in 1994, following a detrimental GLOF, which killed 12 people, destroyed 21 homes, and washed away nearly 2,000 acres of land. Shrestha et al. point out that even a good warning system would not be fully effective in preventing such a tragedy if it fails to reach vulnerable populations like women, as well as other such populations including children, disabled people, and the elderly. As Shrestha et al. explain, while women in Bhutan make up 49% of the population and legally have equal rights and access to education, public services, and health care, most women engage in household labor, while men dominate political work. The authors indicate that only 25 percent of women in Bhutan are involved in non-agricultural work. Extensive male out-migration in Bhutan, as elsewhere in the Hindu Kush Himalayas, leaves women to carry out the work in domestic agriculture. As a result, Bhutanese women are excluded from decision-making processes at community or larger scales. This pattern is reflected in other nearby countries as well.  One study done on disaster-affected people seeking mental health care in Bangladesh, which has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, found that women have higher mortality rates in natural disasters, and are also extremely vulnerable in the aftermath of a natural disaster. For example, they are more likely to face food shortage, sexual harassment, and disease, among other issues. Shrestha et al. describe how the social structure in Bhutan leaves women dependent on men for receiving disaster information, because these details are shared in public places, where women typically do not go. Many of the alerts are done through sirens, but some women cannot hear them as they are located in towns rather than rural areas. Even if women do receive the information, it is...

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Teaching Geology Through Climbing

Posted by on Jan 26, 2017 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Science, Sports | 0 comments

Teaching Geology Through Climbing

Spread the News:ShareLearning by doing can be an effective educational tool. Irene Bollati et al. discovered this to be true while researching climbing as a way to educate students about earth science in the glacier-rich Italian Alps. Their findings were featured in a recent article in the Journal of the Virtual Explorer, in which they describe how climbing teaches young people about processes like weathering and glacial retreat. For their research, Bollati et al. looked specifically at the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province in the western Italian Alps, where there is a long tradition of mountaineering. As the most northern province in Italy’s Piedmont region, the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola is located in a subduction zone in which the Eurasian and African plates collide. Mountain chains like the Alps are an ideal location for education, because they contain geosites, places where many geological and geomorphological processes are exposed in a relatively small area. By finding these locations on which to climb, younger generations can be inspired to learn and become more invested in the preservation of the site’s features. Finding geosites typically has one of two goals, according to Bollati et al. The first is geosite conservation when the site is rare and at risk of degradation. The second is earth science dissemination in cases where the site is valuable for educational purposes. In the latter, it is important that the site’s usage for educational purposes not put its scientific integrity at risk. In their study, Bollati et al. focused on methodology to find the most valuable geosites which meet both goals. Specifically, the researchers focused on a pilot educational project, in which they assessed 100 13 and 14-year-old students from four schools about 80 km from the study region. The project sought to identify the most suitable climbing locations and best mountain cliffs on which students could learn about earth science and geoheritage. According to Bollati et al., geoheritage includes earth features and processes that should be sustained, conserved or managed for their natural heritage value. To determine these regions, Bollati et al. relied on eight major criteria including accessibility, rock cliff quality, and the presence of evident and active hazards. In total, they analyzed 59 crags using the eight major criteria, further dividing those crags into sub-locations. In total, the study pinpointed 14 sub-locations or “geodiversity” sites in the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola province best suited for hiking and climbing. Subduction-collision zones like the Alps are excellent examples of geodiversity sites due to the many different types of rocks found within narrow areas. “Geodiversity,” a term first introduced in 1993, can be understood as the equivalent of biodiversity for geology, according to a paper by Murray Gray. It includes all geological, geomorphological, and soil features. It also encompasses their properties, relationships, and systems, according to Bollati et al. The researchers defined three categories of geodiversity: extrinsic geodiversity (geodiversity of a region in comparison with other regions), regional intrinsic geodiversity (within a region), and geodiversity of a single site. The best examples of these processes and resulting features are called “geodiversity sites.” The most valuable of these for geoconservation are referred to as “geosites” and form the “geoheritage” of a region. In the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola province, students can observe several important signs of glaciation. For example, rock slopes along the Ossola Valley and in the tributary valleys demonstrate glacial modeling. In addition, the researchers used rock samples and virtual methods to introduce the students to the three major rock families, igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary, as well as the geomorphology of the cliffs.   Bollati et al. also used videos of climbers along three selected routes to help students learn where climbers...

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