Posts by Alexandra Harden

Iceberg Killing Fields Threaten Carbon Cycling

Posted by on Nov 24, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts, Science | 0 comments

Iceberg Killing Fields Threaten Carbon Cycling

Spread the News:ShareThe vast, unpopulated landscape of Ryder Bay, West Antarctica gives the impression of complete isolation. However, despite its barren, cold exterior, Antarctica plays an important role in regulating the Earth’s climate system. Located along the southeast coast of Adelaide Island, Ryder Bay is helping mitigate impacts of climate change by removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere to the ocean, where these gases can remain for centuries. This repurposing is being done by benthos, microorganisms like phytoplankton that bloom during summer months and provide critical food supplies that maintain the marine ecosystem in Ryder Bay. Quietly residing on the floor of the Southern Ocean, benthos are encountering increased risks due to a changing climate. While the potential carbon recycling capacity of local marine ecosystems remains significant, the collapsing glaciers and ice shelves in Ryder Bay may threaten this productivity, according to an article in the journal of Global Change Biology. The carbon recycling process in the marine ecosystems is one of the strongest mechanisms helping to reduce the impacts associated with historic carbon emissions. Located along the continental shelf, benthos absorb carbon through photosynthesis; when these organisms die and fall to the ocean floor, this carbon is then stored in sediments. Undisturbed, the ocean can help thwart warming due to an enhanced greenhouse effect by removing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in the ocean. David Barnes, a Marine Benthic Ecologist with the British Antarctic Survey and an author of the article,  pointed out to GlacierHub, “Trends in carbon accumulation and immobilization, which occur on the seabed, could be considered most important as these involve long-term carbon storage. [These trends] are perhaps the largest negative feedback on climate change.” However, because of shifting land dynamics, the increased frequency of iceberg creation is having a direct impact on the ability of the marine ecosystems to recycle carbon. As the Earth continues to warm, ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica advance and become thinner, causing cracks and crevasses to form. These fissures, in turn, lead to unpredictable, large-scale breaks which create icebergs that discharge into the ocean. At the time of detachment, ice formations hit the ocean floor, obliterating the marine ecosystems below. Icebergs can continue to impact the benthos as they travel on the ocean. Barnes described this problem to GlacierHub:  “At places like Ryder Bay, it would be very difficult to provide forecasting, because it is very frequent and a bit chaotic. The direction an iceberg travels depends on its shape, how deep its keel is, wind, and current speed. A smaller iceberg with a vertically flat side above water will easily catch wind like a sail, so if the wind is strong it will mainly follow wind direction. Conversely, a bigger iceberg with a deep vertical flat side might more easily catch current.” According to NOAA, these icebergs— typically rising 5 meters above the sea surface and covering 500 square meters in area— are large enough to inflict significant destruction. Dubbed “iceberg killing fields,” these places of impact can cause extensive disruption to the beneficial marine ecosystems along the ocean floor. David Barnes works with the British Antarctic Survey to study the iceberg killing fields and measure the impact of iceberg-seabed collisions on marine ecosystems. The British Antarctic Survey has been monitoring the local marine ecosystems in Ryder Bay due to their sensitivity to environmental change and the surprisingly large role benthos play in removing carbon from the atmosphere. According to the report, “The scour monitoring has probably become the longest continuously running direct measurement of disturbance on the seabed anywhere in the world.” With roughly 93 percent of carbon...

Read More

How Glacial Lakes in India Offer Lessons on Adaptation

Posted by on Nov 10, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Featured Posts | 0 comments

How Glacial Lakes in India Offer Lessons on Adaptation

Spread the News:ShareSituated on a high plateau in northwest India, the Ladakh region is part of the contested Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. While local communities share similar linguistic, cultural, and religious beliefs with Tibet, Pakistan and India continue to disagree on territorial claims in the region. Located in the Himalaya Mountains, the Ladakh region is home to some of the world’s largest glaciers outside of polar regions with 266 glacial lakes, according to Mountain Research and Development. Given the recent warming temperature trends, the glacial retreat in the region places Ladakh’s small mountain communities at risk for destructive events known as glacial lake outburst floods or GLOFs. A GLOF occurs when the terminal moraine dam located at the maximum edge of a glacier collapses, releasing large volumes of water. In an attempt to minimize these threats to small mountain communities, the International Research Institute of Disaster Science, the Department of Environmental Science at Niigata University, and the Ladakh Ecological Development Group offered a one-day workshop to educate populations on their local risks due to the increased numbers of glacial lakes in the region. Three months after the workshop, facilitators returned to the area to survey local villagers to measure the retention and overall success of this adaptive approach.  In the article, scientists report that knowledge of risks was limited: “Most villagers knew of some but not all of the glacier lakes in the valley – primarily those closest to the regular routes used in their daily lives, such as near pasturelands in the headwater areas and along trade routes to the adjacent valleys.” The majority of villagers obtained their knowledge from communications with people who had come across the glacial lakes accidentally, according to the researchers. By presenting and encouraging action that complemented daily lives, the scientists believed they were able to better prepare communities for climate risks increases. The scientists were able to provide local villagers with information on how to more accurately assess glacier lakes and the potential risk for a GLOF by developing an understanding of local routes. These tools were promoted to help villagers contribute to a stronger, more resilient local mountain community. A warming planet has caused glacial melt to increase in regions like northwest India, leading to the formation of more glacial lakes since the 1970s, according to NASA. With the increased number of glacial lakes located in the Ladakh region, the risk for glacial outburst flood rises, as stated by Worni et al. Given the high altitude origins of these glacial lakes, a sudden release of water can have similar catastrophic impacts as a massive avalanche. The sudden force is capable of leveling anything in its path, including villages. “[GLOFs] result in serious death tolls and destruction of valuable natural resources, such as forests, farms, and costly mountain infrastructures,” according to the India Environmental Portal. “The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region has suffered several GLOF events originating from numerous glacial lakes, some of which have trans-boundary impacts.” Educating and preparing small mountain communities becomes increasingly critical because forecasting abilities for these events are limited. The forecasting challenges surrounding GLOFs makes communicating risk to local communities difficult. In an attempt to reach and effectively communicate risks to remote mountain villages in the Ladakh region, the International Research Institute of Disaster Science, the Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, and the Ladakh Ecological Development Group developed a concept for the one day workshop. According to the report, of the 120 people participating, three villages were represented, all possessing different leveled risks. Villagers were picked at random and varied in age from school children to elderly members in the community. Once the workshop began, facilitators encouraged...

Read More

NASA’s IceBridge Project- More Than Just a Pretty Image

Posted by on Nov 4, 2016 in All Posts, Featured Posts, Images | 0 comments

NASA’s IceBridge Project- More Than Just a Pretty Image

Spread the News:ShareNASA’s IceBridge project looks at Earth’s polar regions in the largest ever collection of images taken from air. As NASA states, “These flights will provide a yearly, multi-instrument look at the behavior of the rapidly changing features of the Greenland and Antarctic ice.” The speed of ice and glacial melt continues to surprise scientists. This project will provide a unique and informative three-dimensional view. Currently information is being collected by regional observation and satellite data collected from NASA’s Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat).  Being able to pair this data with the new three-dimensional images could lead to crucial advances in the field.                       Spread the...

Read More

Glaciers Help Explain Suffering Salmon Populations

Posted by on Oct 27, 2016 in Adaptation, All Posts, Communities, Featured Posts | 0 comments

Glaciers Help Explain Suffering Salmon Populations

Spread the News:ShareThe Nooksack Indians, who live in northwest Washington near the border of Canada, are fighting to save local salmon populations through a variety of innovative measures. Several species of salmon reside in the Nooksack River, which is comprised of three main forks that drain a large portion of the Cascade Range into Bellingham Bay. The salmon of the Nooksack are struggling as waters in the river warm. In response, the Nooksack Indians have turned to local glaciers to help understand and resolve the otherwise unrestricted impacts of climate change. The waters of the Nooksack River have long housed several salmon species that have provided tribes like the Nooksack with sustenance and financial support. In recognition of the importance of fishing for Native American communities, fishing rights were granted to the local tribes through the Treaty of Point Elliott in 1855. However, these fishing rights are threatened by the dwindling salmon populations struggling to keep up with the changing climate. The endangerment of the local salmon populations aren’t just an economic loss for the Nooksack Indians, but a culturally significant loss as well. Oliver Grah, Water Resources Program Manager for the tribe, points out, “The Nooksack Indian Tribe is place-based. That is, tribal members are supposed to stay and live on or near their reservation.” Once the river ecosystems reach a specific tipping point, the salmon populations will begin to die off and the impacts on local tribes will be deeply felt. In an effort to avert worrisome climate projections, the Nooksack Indian Tribe has been proactively implementing adaptive infrastructure and closely monitoring nearby glaciers crucial to healthy salmon numbers. It’s through thoughtful and long-term adaptation and monitoring plans that the Nooksack Tribe seeks to ease the environmental stressors that may critically alter salmon habitats. Pacific Northwest salmon populations fare best in periods having “high precipitation, deep mountain snowpack, cool air and water temperatures, cool coastal ocean temperatures, and abundant north-to-south ‘upwelling’ winds in spring and summer,” according to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. The Nooksack River relies heavily on the glacial runoff from both Mount Baker and Mount Shuksan located near the U.S.-Canada border. Summer glacial melt has historically helped keep rivers cool and ideal for salmon, according to Northern Arizona University. However, as places like Washington continue to see above average temperatures, the glacial snowpack has started to suffer. When the glaciers suffer, the salmon suffer. With the current temperature trends, salmon populations will slowly wane to extinction in the Nooksack river, according to Grah. Grah states, “Ultimately, loss of glacier melt due to glacier recession will result in reduced stream flows and increased temperatures late in the summer when salmon are most vulnerable.” Different salmon species breed during the late summer and early fall, according to the National Park Service. This process begins in freshwater when a salmon egg nest becomes fertilized and remains embedded in the river bottom during the winter months. In the spring, eggs hatch and remain close to the nest for several months. Once the salmon have matured and grown in size, they begin to migrate towards the ocean. Depending on salmon breed, the migration can take anywhere from 0-2 years. Once the salmon reach the mouth of the river, they feed to increase their size and chance of survival in the ocean. Salmon can remain in the ocean for up to 8 years before migrating back to their native streams for reproduction. But this entire process relies on a consistent habitat in the salmon’s native river. The Nooksack Tribe recognizes the importance of trying to maintain this original ecosystem...

Read More