Hundreds of Millions of South Asians At Risk from Glacier Melt

A roadside market along the way from Kabul to Mazer-i-Sharif, Afghanistan. Hundreds of millions of people in countries near the Hindu Kush mountain range are affected by glacial melt. (Susan Novak/Flickr)
A roadside market along the way from Kabul to Mazer-i-Sharif, Afghanistan. Hundreds of millions of people in countries near the Hindu Kush mountain range are at risk from glacial melt. (Susan Novak/Flickr)

Few regions on Earth depend as heavily on glaciers for food, energy and water as South Asia’s Hindu Kush Himalayan ecosystem. A new research paper in the journal Environmental Science and Policy highlights some of the challenges downstream communities face when glacier water from upstream communities becomes scarce.

The greater South Asian region accounts for two-thirds of the world’s population and consumes roughly 60 percent of the planet’s water. Hundreds of millions of people in South Asian countries like India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh depend on the Hindu Kush Himalayan ecosystem for direct and indirect sustenance.

“The Hindu Kush Himalayan mountain system is often called the ‘third pole’ or ‘water tower of Asia’ because it contains the largest area of glaciers and permafrost and the largest freshwater resources outside the North and South poles,” wrote lead researcher Golam Rasul in the May 2014 paper. “Food, water, and energy security in South Asia: A nexus perspective from the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.”

The Hindu Kush range extends some 800 kilometers in a northeast-to-southwest direction from the Pamir Mountains near the Pakistan-China border, through Pakistan, and into western Afghanistan. This 1879 map shows the passes between Kabul and Oxus. (Royal Geographical Society/Wikimedia Commons)
The Hindu Kush range extends some 800 kilometers in a northeast-to-southwest direction from the Pamir Mountains near the Pakistan-China border, through Pakistan, and into western Afghanistan. This 1879 map shows the passes between Kabul and Oxus. (Royal Geographical Society/Wikimedia Commons)

Rasul, the head of the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development’s Economic Analysis division, said the best approach to the situation is a nexus approach. In other words, equal attention must be paid to watersheds, catchments, river system headwaters and hydropower.

The mountainous area is home to tens of thousands of glaciers whose water reserves are equivalent to around three times the annual precipitation over the entire regions. These glaciers – a study from International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development put the number at 54,000 – are a crucial component of the region’s ecosystem, and in many ways central to providing energy, food and water to the glacier communities and those downstream.

The Hindu Kush Himalayan ecosystem is under threat from unsustainable resource use. Rapid population growth, increased urbanization, and increased commercial activity are driving increasing pressure on ecosystem services, as higher demand for energy and resource intensive goods are met with little regard for sustainable resource use.

(<a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/alistair_rae/5342688529/in/photolist-997Fat-aaXJPg-jpDKwu-7stWH3-8JEwWB-cmGoDo-aR7pfg-bsZtRb-9Lq3Ev-8JEwXK-8JEwSc-8JEwUn-8JEwYV-fg29L8">Meandering Mammal/Flickr)
The glaciers of the Hindu Kush mountain range are heavily relied on for water, food, energy, and more. A new study says hundreds of millions of people are at risk from the glaciers melting. ()

Rasul notes that reversing this trend is inherently difficult, given that mountain communities bear the cost of conservation, but receive only a few of the benefits due to “a lack of institutional mechanisms and policy arrangements for sharing the benefits and costs of conservation.”

In order to maximize benefits to upstream and downstream communities, the authors say a nexus approach that looks to understand the interdependencies of food, water, and energy, can maximize synergies and manage trade-offs. As the water intensity of food and energy production increases, the recognition of the role of glaciers and other hydrological resources in the Hindu Kush Himalayan ecosystem will be vital in promoting its sustainable use.

 

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5 Comments

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siraj ulmulkreply
October 17, 2014 at 05:10 AM

Please keep us abreast with effects of climate change in the Hindukush. We live here in Chitral, Pakistan and are witnessing the way our glaciers are receeding drastically. We have also seen the devastion that “glacial bursts” have caused to our villages and our population.
We are also guilty of contributing towards what is happening to us through ruthless and unchecked deforestation that is taking place here in which unscupulous elements are working hand in glove with the authorities who are supposed to prevent such things from happening. Siraj Ulmulk

teofilo altamiranoreply
October 20, 2014 at 04:10 PM

It happens the same with south american glacier. We have lost 40 percent of ice since 40 years ago. the andean cordillera provides wáter to 8 countries, almost all south ameriacn countries except uruguay and Paraguay.

Tenzin Thinleyreply
October 22, 2014 at 07:10 PM

I worked as a restoration engineer and I worry some areas will soon be beyond repair.

teofilo altamirano ruareply
August 22, 2016 at 04:08 PM
– In reply to: Tenzin Thinley

Hope that the recent mountatain glacier meeting just took place in Huaraz Peru, may also contribute, not only to create awarness about glacier melt in the andes, but to take inmediate actions to prevent or at least to reduce the ice melt in the andes. As green house efffect sources are still the same in our andean countries, I am afraid we may not reach our objectives of reducing global warming levels.
I study the Huytapallana glacier for 8 years, during those year 8 percent of the galcier has melt and will continue. In another 50 years or more there wont be any ice, if we dont take real, actions not only wishfull ideas as it often happens in climate change summits

India is Training Students to Be Glaciologists | GlacierHubreply
December 30, 2014 at 08:12 AM

[…] Here is a recording of Bloomberg journalist Adi Narayan’s description of the training program. For a discussion of the importance of glaciers to human development in South Asia, see this previous Glacierhub post. […]

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